Areas of interest
The host and intestinal microbiota have co-evolved and this has resulted in intricate and integrated relationships existing between the two. Correlations between the composition and function of the microbiota and host health are clear, but it is rare that a single bacterial strain is identified as a specific marker for disease. Instead, in conditions such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, neoplasia and malignancy, autoimmunity, allergy, liver disease, diabetes and obesity-related disorders, the literature refers to a microbial population "shift" which results in dysbiosis.
My research focus is how the intestinal microbiota influences the host system in terms of the development of immune and metabolic phenotype and function, specifically, the immediate and sustained effects of early-life manipulation of both composition and function of the microbiota on long-term 'programming' of host physiology. These manipulations include early-life environment, antibiotic therapy, dietary supplementation and nutrition.
This work has established that the dietary protein source at weaning causes sustained shifts in metabonomic and immunological development and that the effects of probiotics on immune responses can be influenced by earlier nutrition. This work has also provided the first direct evidence, derived from intervention, that components of the early-life environment present on farms profoundly affect both local regulation of the mucosal immune system and systemic immune responses to food proteins at weaning.
The overall, long-term goal of this research is to identify the mechanisms underlying early-life programming events and to develop medically feasible interventions which 'rescue' infants from the detrimental effects resulting from early-life experiences. These include caesarean section, antibiotic therapy and maternal obesity which have been linked to allergy, autoimmunity and metabolic syndrome in off-spring respectively.
- PhD Molecular Microbiology, University of Exeter, 2004
- BSc Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Bath, 2000.
Awards and honours
Wellcome Trust Strategic Award Funding (PI)
A systems approach to identify the mechanisms and pathways by which the intestinal microbiota influences host transcriptomic and proteomic phenotype.
Royal Society (PI)
Determining the mechanisms by which early-life farm environments protect against the development of inflammatory diseases in later life.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (PI)
Modelling human Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Acute Secretory Diarrhoea: a novel piglet approach.
Faculty Campaigns and Alumni (PI)
How does early-life environment predispose to autoimmune and allergic disease?
Nestle RY9204 (Co-I)
Intervention with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (NCC2818) modulates local and systemic immune responses around weaning.
- Frost, J. , Kit Tan, T. , Abbas, M. , Wideman, S. , Bonadonna, M. , Stoffel, N. , Weay, K. , Kronsteiner, B. , Sits, G. , Campagna, D. , Duarte, T. , Lopes, J. , Shah, A. , Armitage, A. , Arezes, J. , Jin Lim, P. , Preston, A. , Ahem, D. , Teh, M. , Naylor, C. , Salio, M. , Gileadi, U. , Andrews, S. , Dunachie, S. , Zimmermann, M. , van der Klis, F. , Cerundolo, V. , Bannard, O. , Draper, S. , Townsend, A. , Galy, B. , Flamming, M. , Lewis, M. , Drakesmith, H. (2021) Hepcidin-mediated hypoferremia disrupts immune responses to vaccination and infection. Med , 2 (2). pp. 164-179. ISSN: 2666-6340 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2020.10.004
- Poveda, C. , Pereira, D. , Lewis, M. , Walton, G. (2020) The impact of low-level iron supplements on the faecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome and healthy donors using in vitro batch cultures. Nutrients , 12 (12). ISSN: 2072-6643 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123819
- Christoforidou, Z. , Mora Ortiz, M. , Poveda, C. , Abbas, M. , Walton, G. , Bailey, M. , Lewis, M. (2019) Sexual dimorphism in immune development and in response to nutritional intervention in neonatal piglets. Frontiers in Immunology , 10 ISSN: 1664-3224 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02705
- Christoforidou, Z. , Burt, R. , Mulder, I. , Gill, B. , Pluske, J. , Kelly, D. , Stokes, C. , Bailey, M. , Lewis, M. (2018) Development of immune cells in the intestinal mucosa can be affected by intensive and extensive farm environments, and antibiotic use. Frontiers in Immunology , 9 ISSN: 1664-3224 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01061
- Lewis, M. (2017) The gut-associated lymphoid system. In: Calder, P. and Kulkarni, A. , (eds.) Nutrition, Immunity and Infection. CRC Press , Boca Raton, USA. pp. 19-32. ISBN: 9781482253979
- Lewis, M. , Merrifield, C. , Berger, B. , Cloarec, O. , Duncker, S. , Mercenier, A. , Nicholson, J. , Holmes, E. , Bailey, M. (2017) Early intervention with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 modulates the host-microbe interface independent of the sustained changes induced by the neonatal environment. Scientific reports , 7 ISSN: 2045-2322 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05689-z
- Merrifield, C. , Lewis, M. , Berger, B. , Cloarec, O. , Heinzmann, S. , Charton, F. , Krause, L. , Levin, N. , Duncker, S. , Mercenier, A. , Holmes, E. , Bailey, M. , Nicholson, J. (2016) Neonatal environment exerts a sustained influence on the development of the intestinal microbiota and metabolic phenotype. ISME Journal , 10 (1). pp. 145-157. ISSN: 1751-7370 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2015.90
- Lewis, M. (2013) A pig’s microbiota – a result of many factors. Pig Progress , 29 (8). pp. 24-26.
- Merrifield, C. , Lewis, M. , Claus, S. , Pearce, J. , Cloarec, O. , Duncker, S. , Heinzmann, S. , Dumas, M. , Kochar, S. , Rezzi, S. , Mercenier, A. , Nicholson, J. , Bailey, M. , Holmes, E. (2013) Weaning diet induces sustained metabolic phenotype shift in the pig and influences host response to Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818. Gut , 62 (6). pp. 842-851. ISSN: 1468-3288 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301656
- Lewis, M. , Patel, D. , Fowler, J. , Duncker, S. , Zuercher, A. , Mercenier, A. , Bailey, M. (2013) Dietary supplementation with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 from weaning reduces local immunoglobulin production in lymphoid-associated tissues but increases systemic antibodies in healthy neonates. British Journal of Nutrition , 110 (7). pp. 1243-1252. ISSN: 1475-2662 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513000251
- Bailey, M. , Christoforidou, Z. , Lewis, M. (2012) The evolutionary basis for differences between the immune systems of man, mouse, pig and ruminants. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology , 152 (1-2). pp. 13-19. ISSN: 0165-2427 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.022
- Bailey, M. , Christoforidou, Z. , Lewis, M. (2012) Evolution of immune systems: specificity and autoreactivity. Autoimmunity Reviews , 12 (6). pp. 643-647. ISSN: 1568-9972 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2012.10.007
- Laycock, G. , Sait, L. , Inman, C. , Lewis, M. , Smidt, H. , van Diemen, P. , Jorgensen, F. , Stevens, M. , Bailey, M. (2012) A defined intestinal colonization microbiota for gnotobiotic pigs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology , 149 (3-4). pp. 216-224. ISSN: 0165-2427 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.07.004
- Lewis, M. , Inman, C. , Patel, D. , Schmidt, B. , Imke, M. , Miller, B. , Gill, B. , Pluske, J. , Kelly, D. , Stokes, C. , Bailey, M. (2012) Direct experimental evidence that early-life farm environment influences regulation of immune responses. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology , 23 (3). pp. 265-269. ISSN: 1399-3038 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01258.x
- Marrifield, C. , Lewis, M. , Claus, S. , Beckonert, O. , Dummas, M. , Duncker, S. , Kochhar, S. , Rezzi, S. , Lindon, J. , Bailey, M. , Holmes, E. , Nicholson, J. (2011) A metabolic system-wide characterisation of the pig: a model for human physiology. Molecular Biosystems , 7 (9). pp. 2577-2588. ISSN: 1742-206X | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C1MB05023K
- Schmidt, B. , Mulder, I. , Musk, C. , Aminov, R. , Lewis, M. , Stokes, C. , Bailey, M. , Prosser, J. , Gill, B. , Plusk, J. , Kelly, D. (2011) Establishment of normal gut microbiota is compromised under excessive hygiene conditions. PLoS ONE , 6 (12). ISSN: 1932-6203 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028284
- Mulder, I. , Schmidt, B. , Lewis, M. , Delday, M. , Stokes, C. , Bailey, M. , Aminov, R. , Gill, B. , Pluske, J. , Mayer, C. , Kelly, D. (2011) Restricting microbial exposure in early life negates the immune benefits associated with gut colonization in environments of high microbial diversity. PLoS ONE , 6 (12). ISSN: 1932-6203 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028279
- Inman, C. , Singha, S. , Lewis, M. , Bradley, B. , Stokes, C. , Bailey, M. (2010) Dendritic cells interact with CD4 T cells in intestinal mucosa. Journal of Leukocyte Biology , 88 (3). pp. 571-578. ISSN: 1938-3673 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0310161
- Lewis, M. , Inman, C. , Bailey, M. (2010) Postnatal development of the mucosal immune system and consequences on health in adulthood. Canadian Journal of Animal Science , 90 (2). pp. 129-136. ISSN: 1918-1825 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.4141/CJAS09112
- Lauridsen, C. , Whiting, C. , Lewis, M. , Bailey, M. , Bland, P. , Stokes, C. (2010) Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in intestine of pigs of different ages and hygiene status. Livestock Science , 133 (1). pp. 200-203. ISSN: 1871-1413 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.063
- Mulder, I. , Schmidt, B. , Stokes, C. , Lewis, M. , Bailey, M. , Aminov, R. , Prosser, J. , Gill, B. , Pluske, J. , Mayer, C. , Musk, C. , Kelly, D. (2009) Environmentally-acquired bacteria influence microbial diversity and natural innate immune responses at gut surfaces. BMC Biology , 7 (79). ISSN: 1741-7007 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-7-79
- Allen, V. , Weaver, H. , Ridley, A. , Harris, J. , Sharma, M. , Emery, J. , Sparks, N. , Lewis, M. , Edge, S. (2008) Sources and spread of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. during partial depopulation of broiler chicken flocks. Journal of Food Protection , 71 (2). pp. 264-270. ISSN: 0362-028X
- Lewis, M. , Tarlton, J. , Cose, S. (2008) Memory versus naive T-cell migration. Immunology & Cell biology , 86 (3). pp. 226-231. ISSN: 1440-1711 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.icb.7100132
- Lewis, M. , Leeming, K. , Lappin-Scott, H. (2003) Differential gene expression between biofilm and planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In: McBain, A. , Allison, D. , Brading, M. , Rickard, A. , Verran, J. , Walker, J. , (eds.) Biofilm Community Interactions: Order from chaos?. , 6. Bioline, Cardiff , UK. pp. 129-143. ISBN: 9780954575601
- Bass, C. , Lewis, M. , Lappin-Scott, H. (2001) Early attachment of multispecies, anaerobic bacterial communities. In: Gilbert, P. , Allison, D. , Brading, M. , Verran, J. , Walker, J. , (eds.) Biofilm Community Interactions: Chance or Necessity?. , 5. Bioline, Cardiff , UK. ISBN: 9780952043294