Dr Francisco Areal
- Module convenor for APME76 Resource and Environmental Economics; APME77 Environmental Economics and APME21 Policy Analysis
- Environmental Economics: Human wellbeing and nature; Sustainability indicators; Environmental valuation; Invasive species; Development of methods that incorporate environmental and spatial aspects to farm efficiency analysis.
- Agricultural Economics: Efficiency analysis; Remote sensing; Technology adoption; Economic and environmental performance of GM crops; Commodity price analysis.
- Consumer Behaviour: Economic valuation of food attributes related to risk; consumers' level of knowledge and information.
Francisco Areal is an Associate Professor in Environmental Economics since 2017. Francisco was appointed Lecturer of Environmental Economics at University of Reading in 2011. Previously he worked at the Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies in Seville, Spain and at the Central Science Laboratory in York (currently known as the Food and Environment Research Agency -FERA-).
Francisco has worked on a wide number of nationally and internationally funded projects including FP6-SIGMEA, FP6-Co-extra, Defra's funded Sustainable Intensification Platform, and Innovative UK funded Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Armajaro, amongst others. Francisco has also carried out consultancy work.
Francisco joined the School of Agriculture, Policy and Development in 2011 where his research has covered five main areas: efficiency analysis, performance of genetically modified (GM) crops and evaluation of coexistence policies, sustainability, food security and development, and consumer behaviour in food consumption. More specifically:
a) Efficiency analysis:
Developing analytical methods to incorporate environmental outputs (e.g. ecosystem services) and spatial aspects into technical efficiency analysis.
Francisco has worked along Mr. Philip Jones (University of Reading), Simon Mortimer (University of Reading) and Paul Wilson (University of Nottingham) in a project funded by Rural Business Research on developing sustainable intensification indicators derived from farm efficiency analysis.
Francisco has contributed to the Sustainable Intensification Platform (SIP) a Defra funded project. The SIP focuses on the simultaneously increasing farm output and competitiveness, whilst protecting the countryside and enhancing the environment. In particular my role with other members of the University of Reading (Prof. Richard Tiffin, Dr. Simon Mortimer) and Dr. Frederic Ang was to develop metrics of sustainable intensification.
b) GM crops:
Francisco has work on evaluating economic and environmental performance of GM crops as well as associated policies. In this area Francisco has recently worked on developing ways to incorporate probability functions into composite indicators. This has been applied to calculating the probability of environmental impact of GM crops vs conventional crops.
He has also worked on examining the effect of coexistence measures to avoid cross-fertilisation between GM and conventional crops on GM crop adoption in the EU as well as analysing the distances needed to limit cross fertilisation between GM and non-GM maize in Europe.
Recently, he has conducted consultancy work for Fundación ANTAMA on the role of genetically modified soy as a raw material in the EU. As a result a report assessed the alternatives and economic impact to the Spanish fodder industry and livestock farming sector of a potential EU ban on the imports (click to watch a summary in a Youtube video - Spanish -). More recently he has conducted a second report for Fundación ANTAMA on "Benefits of Bt maize in Spain (1998-2015). Benefits from an economic, social and environmental viewpoint."
Francisco has worked on developing metrics for Sustainable Intensification (SI) of farms. He has worked intensively in this area through funded projects by Rural Business Research and Defra's Sustainable Intensification Platform. Francisco has developed ways to obtain distributional metrics of SI such as farm level composite indicators of SI by combining stochastic frontier analysis framework and composite indicators for farm provision of environmental goods.
Analysing the sustainability of olive farming in Spain. Francisco has worked on understanding farmer's views on the future of olive farming incorporating spatial econometrics to provide propositions on what elements should be taking into account when designing agricultural policies aiming at guaranteeing the sustainability of olive farming in future.
Francisco has contributed to estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) of Greek residents for green electricity produced by offshore wind farm identifying factors behind respondents׳ WTP including individual׳s behaviour toward environment and individual׳s views on climate change and renewable energy.
d) Food security and development:
Francisco has contributed to the Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund (AECF) funded project on measuring the impacts of an edutainment TV programme, Shamba Shape Up, on the adoption of innovation systems by smallholder farmers in Kenya and social benefits.
Contributing to research on development economics in the area of food security and understanding the adoption of agricultural practices by small holding farmers.
e) Consumer behaviour in food consumption
Recently Francisco has collaborated with Caroline Harkness to investigate the consumer's willingness to pay for low acrylamide content.
Francisco's current research activities include being the Knowledge Base Supervisor of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership project - collaboration between University of Reading and Armajaro-. The project investigates relationships between remote sensing and 'real' crop (ground data) in order to create a predictive system for crop production potential.
Previously Francisco has worked on:
- estimating the economic value of trees susceptible to Sudden Oak Death;
- analysing the effects of the international trade of cut flowers to the introduction of invasive species in the UK;
- analysing the impacts of the American mink (Mustela vison) on a marketable native species: Salmon (Salmo salar) reared in fish farms using ecological-economic modelling;
- Cost-Benefit Analysis for a native oyster restoration program in the UK land use modelling of common agricultural policy reform.
Francisco regularly participates as invited expert for the OECD network on farm level analysis of productivity and has advised research funding agencies such as ESRC.
Francisco has acted as Guest Editor of the special issue of Resources on "Sustainable indicators for environmental management". Francisco is a current member of the Steering Group of Eurochoices (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291746-692X) and member of the Editorial Staff Committee of the Journal Agricultural and Resource Economics/Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales (http://aeea.webs.upv.es/aeea/en/index.php). Francisco has acted as an executive member of the Agriculture Economics Society (http://www.aes.ac.uk/) during the period 2013-2017.
Francisco has supervised 3 PhD students to completion:
Omotuyole Ambali (with Prof. Nikos Georgantzis) - Risk and Time Preferences and Spatial Dependence in Improved Rice Technology Adoption Decisions: Evidence from Nigeria
Rui Catarino (with Prof. Julian Park and Dr. Graziano Ceddia) - Modelling the effect of Bt maize introduction on pest dynamics, insecticide use and economic returns to farmers
Inibehe Upkong (with Prof. Kelvin Balcombe) - Valuing the Environmental and Livelihood Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industry: A Choice Experiment on the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Francisco is currently supervising 3 PhD students:
Caroline Harkness (with Dr. Jake Bishop, Dr. Ian Shield (Rothamsted Research) and Mikhail Semenov (Rothamsted Research)) - Optimising agriculture for a changing climate: which farming practises confer reliability of food production and farm income?
Samal Kaliyeva (with Dr. Yiorgos Gadanakis) - Evaluating policies aiming at improving milk production in Kazakhstan
Evangelos Kodosakis (with Prof. Elizabeth Robinson) - Neglect and economic growth in forest regimes during crises
Francisco has supervised 20 MSc students and 30+ undergraduate students
- Harkness, C. , Areal, F. , Semenov, M. , Senapati, N. , Shield, I. , Bishop, J. ORCID: 0000-0003-2114-230X (2023) Towards stability of food production and farm income in a variable climate. Ecological Economics , 204 (Part A). ISSN: 0921-8009 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2022.107676
- Areal, F. , Clarkson, G. , Garforth, C. , Barahona, C. , Dove, M. , Dorward, P. (2020) Does TV edutainment lead to farmers changing their agricultural practices aiming at increasing productivity?. Journal of Rural Studies , 76 pp. 213-229. ISSN: 0743-0167 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.03.001
- Harkness, C. , Semenov, M. , Areal, F. , Senapati, N. , Trnka, M. , Balek, J. , Bishop, J. (2020) Adverse weather conditions for UK wheat production under climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology , 282-283 ISSN: 0168-1923 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107862
- Martinez-Ribaya, B. and Areal, F. (2020) Is there an opportunity for product differentiation between GM and non-GM soya-based products in Argentina?. Food Control , 109 pp 0. ISSN: 9567135 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106895
- Gadanakis, Y. ORCID: 0000-0001-7441-970X and Areal, F. (2020) Accounting for rainfall and the length of growing season in technical efficiency analysis. Operational Research , 20 pp. 2583-2608. ISSN: 1109-2858 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12351-018-0429-7
- Catarino, R. , Areal, F. , Park, J. , Parisey, N. (2019) Spatially explicit economic effects of non-susceptible pests' invasion on Bt maize. Agricultural Systems , 175 pp. 22-33. ISSN: 0308-521X | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2019.05.008
- Ukpong, I. , Balcombe, K. , Fraser, I. , Areal, F. (2019) Preferences for mitigation of the negative impacts of the oil and gas industry in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Environmental and Resource Economics , 74 (2). pp. 811-843. ISSN: 1573-1502 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-019-00349-4
- Clarkson, G. , Garforth, C. , Dorward, P. , Mose, G. , Barahona, C. , Areal, F. , Dove, M. (2018) Can the TV makeover format of edutainment lead to widespread changes in farmer behaviour and influence innovation systems? Shamba Shape Up in Kenya. Land Use Policy , 76 pp. 338-351. ISSN: 0264-8377 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.05.011
- Harkness, C. and Areal, F. (2018) Consumer willingness to pay for low acrylamide content. British Food Journal , 120 (8). pp. 1888-1900. ISSN: 0007-070X | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2018-0043
- Gadanakis, Y. and Areal, F. (2018) Measuring the impact of extreme weather phenomena on total factor productivity of General Cropping farms in East Anglia. International Journal of Food and Beverage Manufacturing and Business Models , 3 (1). pp. 1-22. ISSN: 2379-7509
- Areal, F. , Jones, P. , Mortimer, S. , Wilson, P. (2018) Measuring sustainable intensification: combining composite indicators and efficiency analysis to account for positive externalities in cereal production. Land Use Policy , 75 pp. 314-326. ISSN: 0264-8377 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.04.001
- Ang, F. , Mortimer, S. , Areal, F. , Tiffin, R. (2018) On the opportunity cost of crop diversification. Journal of Agricultural Economics , 69 (3). pp. 794-814. ISSN: 1477-9552 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12272
- Pede, V. , Areal, F. , Singbo, A. , McKinley, J. , Kajisa, K. (2018) Spatial dependency and technical efficiency: an application of a Bayesian stochastic frontier model to irrigated and rainfed rice farmers in Bohol, Philippines. Agricultural Economics , 49 (3). pp. 301-312. ISSN: 0169-5150 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/agec.12417
- Areal, F. , Balcombe, K. , Rapsomanikis, G. (2016) Testing for bubbles in agriculture commodity markets. Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales - Agricultural and Resource Economics , 16 (1). pp. 59-79. ISSN: 1578-0732 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.7201/earn.2016.01.04
- Sabbatini, V. , Gadanakis, Y. , Areal, F. (2016) Variation on the effects of the 2003 CAP reform and regional differences in the Italian olive oil sector. International Journal of Food and Beverage Manufacturing and Business Models , 1 (1). pp. 48-60. ISSN: 2379-7495 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.4018/IJFBMBM.2016010105
- Catarino, R. , Ceddia, G. , Areal, F. , Parisey, N. , Park, J. (2016) Managing maize under pest species competition: is Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize the solution?. Ecosphere , 7 (6). ISSN: 2150-8925 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1340
- Georgiou, I. and Areal, F. (2015) Economic valuation of an offshore wind farm in Greece: the role of individual’s base-state influences and beliefs in the value formation process. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews , 52 pp. 717-724. ISSN: 1364-0321 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.178
- Gadanakis, Y. , Bennett, R. , Park, J. , Areal, F. (2015) Improving productivity and water use efficiency: a case study of farms in England. Agricultural Water Management , 160 pp. 22-32. ISSN: 0378-3774 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.020
- Micha, E. , Areal, F. , Tranter, R. , Bailey, A. (2015) Uptake of agri-environmental schemes in the Less-Favoured Areas of Greece: The role of corruption and farmers' responses to the financial crisis. Land Use Policy , 48 pp. 144-157. ISSN: 0264-8377 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.05.016
- Catarino, R. , Ceddia, G. , Areal, F. , Park, J. (2015) The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops. Plant Biotechnology Journal , 13 (5). pp. 601-612. ISSN: 1467-7652 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12363
- Areal, F. , Dunwell, J. , Jones, P. , Park, J. , McFarlane, I. , Srinivasan, C. , Tranter, R. (2015) An evidence-based review on the likely economic and environmental impact of genetically modified cereals and oilseeds for UK agriculture. HGCA (82). pp 96.
- Areal, F. and Riesgo, L. (2015) Probability functions to build composite indicators: a methodology to measure environmental impacts of genetically modified crops. Ecological Indicators , 52 pp. 498-516. ISSN: 1470-160X | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.01.008
- Gadanakis, Y. ORCID: 0000-0001-7441-970X , Bennett, R. , Park, J. , Areal, F. (2015) Evaluating the sustainable intensification of arable farms. Journal of Environmental Management , 150 pp. 288-298. ISSN: 0301-4797 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.10.005
- Areal, F. and Riesgo, L. (2014) The economics of public private partnership in plant breeding. In: Lusser, M. , (eds.) Workshop on public-private partnerships in plant breeding: Proceedings. JRC science and policy reports Publications Office of the European Union , Luxembourg. pp. 43-45. ISBN: 9789279381669 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2791/80891
- Areal, F. and Riesgo, L. (2014) Farmers' views on the future of olive farming in Andalusia, Spain. Land Use Policy , 36 pp. 543-553. ISSN: 0264-8377 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.10.005
- Riesgo, L. and Areal, F. (2013) Cultivos modificados genéticamente y sostenibilidad agraria. La sostentabilidad de la agricultura española. Cajamar Caja Rural ISBN: 9788495531568
- Marceau, A. , Gustafson, D. , Brants, I. , Leprince, F. , Foueillassar, X. , Riesgo, L. , Areal, F. , Sławomir, S. , Kraic, J. , Badea, E. (2013) Updated empirical model of genetically-modified maize grain production practices to achieve European Union labeling thresholds. Crop Science , 53 (4). pp. 1712-1721. ISSN: 1435-0653 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2012.04.0224
- Areal, F. , Riesgo, L. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2013) Economic and agronomic impact of commercialised GM crops: a meta-analysis. Journal of Agricultural Science , 151 (1). pp. 7-33. ISSN: 1469-5146 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859612000111
- Areal, F. , Riesgo, L. , Gómez-Barbero, M. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) EU coexistence policies may shape future adoption of GM technology by EU farmers. In: Lusser, M. , Raney, T. , Tillie, P. , Dillen, K. , Rodríguez-Cerezo, E. , (eds.) International workshop on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops co-organised by JRC-IPTS and FAO. Publications Office of the European Union pp. 81-84. ISBN: 9789279235504
- Riesgo, L. , Areal, F. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) The case of Bt maize in the EU. In: Lusser, M. , Raney, T. , Tillie, P. , Dillen, K. , Rodríguez-Cerezo, E. , (eds.) International workshop on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops co-organised by JRC-IPTS and FAO. Publications Office of the European Union pp. 59-60.
- Areal, F. , Riesgo, L. , Rodríguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) GM crops, developing countries and food security. World Agriculture , 3 (2). pp. 19-22. ISSN: 2043-7234
- Areal, F. , Tiffin, R. , Balcombe, K. (2012) Provision of environmental output within a multi-output distance function approach. Ecological Economics , 78 pp. 47-54. ISSN: 0921-8009 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.03.011
- Areal, F. , Balcombe, K. , Tiffin, R. (2012) Integrating spatial dependence into stochastic frontier analysis. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics , 56 (4). pp. 521-541. ISSN: 1364-985X | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8489.2012.00597.x
- Areal, F. , Riesgo, L. , Gomez-Barbero, M. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) Consequences of a coexistence policy on the adoption of GMHT crops in the European Union. Food Policy , 37 (4). pp. 401-411. ISSN: 0306-9192 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.04.003
- Riesgo, L. , Areal, F. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) How can specific market demand for non-GM maize affect the profitability of BT and conventional maize? A case study for the middle Ebro Valley, Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research , 10 (4). pp. 867-876. ISSN: 2171-9292 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2012104-448-11
- Areal, F. , Tiffin, R. , Balcombe, K. (2012) Farm technical efficiency under a tradable milk-quota system. Journal of Dairy Science , 95 (1). pp. 50-62. ISSN: 0022-0302 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4638
- Areal, F. , Riesgo, L. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2011) Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption. Plant Biotechnology Journal , 9 (9). pp. 945-957. ISSN: 1467-7652 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2011.00651.x
- Riesgo, L. , Areal, F. , Sanvido, O. , Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2010) Distances needed to limit cross-fertilization between GM and conventional maize in Europe. Nature Biotechnology , 28 (8). pp. 780-782. ISSN: 1546-1696 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0810-780
- Areal, F. and Roy, S. (2009) A management tool for mink (Mustela vison) control in the western isles of Scotland (UK). Design & Nature and Ecodynamics Journal , 4 (1). pp. 16-31. ISSN: 1755-7445
- Areal, F. , Touza, . , MacLeod, . , Dehnen-Schmutz, . , Perrings, . , Palmieri, . , Spence, . (2008) Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade. Journal of Environmental Management , 89 (4). pp. 300-307. ISSN: 0301-4797 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.06.017
- Areal, F. and MacLeod, A. (2007) Estimating the economic value of trees at risk from a quarantine disease. In: Oude Lansink, A. , (eds.) New approaches to the economics of plant health. Wageningen UR Frontis Series Springer (20). pp. 119-130. ISBN: 9781402058257
- Areal, F. , Ceddia, M. , Pazienza, P. (2007) Predicting the impact of the EU common agricultural policy reform in England: micro and macroeconomic aspects . Journal of Business Economics and Management , 8 (4). pp. 237-244. ISSN: 2029-4433 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16111699.2007.9636175
- Laing, I. , Walker, P. , Areal, F. (2006) Return of the native: is European oyster (Ostrea edulis) stock restoration in the UK feasible? . Aquatic Living Resources , 19 (3). pp. 283-287. ISSN: 1765-2952 | doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/alr:2006029
- Laing, I. , Walker, P. , Areal, F. (2005) A feasibility study of native oyster (Ostrea edulis) stock regeneration in the United Kingdom. CARD Project FC1016 Native Oyster Stock Regeneration - A Review of Biological, Technical and Economic Feasibility. The Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science pp 97.