University of Reading cookie policy

We use cookies on to improve your experience, monitor site performance and tailor content to you.

Read our cookie policy to find out how to manage your cookie settings.


This study will explore if there are differences in how much different macronutrients decrease hunger in older adults as well as exploring the difference in hunger following different macronutrients between older and younger volunteers.

The effect of different macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate) on satiety has been thoroughly explored. It is now generally assumed that protein decreases hunger the most satiating and fat the least. However, this research has been undertaken in young individuals.

Older adults are often advised to consume more protein to prevent muscle loss with age however if protein is more filling then this may not be such a good idea. Emptying of food from the stomach is linked to feelings of hunger so we will also measure this using a non-invasive breath test.

Breakfast, lunch and smoothie will be provided.

You can relax, work, watch films, do as you please between meals.

We are looking for volunteers to compare the effect of different foods on hunger and food intake. You will be required to undertake three test days in Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition in the University of Reading.

We are looking for volunteers who meet the following criteria:

  • Either aged older than 65 years or younger than 40 years
  • Not on a weight loss diet
  • Have had no changes in medication known to influence appetite in the last 3 months.
  • Not pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Do not smoke more than 10 cigarettes per day