GV3TRC-Tropical Rainforests, Climate & Lost Civilisations

Module Provider: Geography and Environmental Science
Number of credits: 20 [10 ECTS credits]
Terms in which taught: Autumn term module
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Modules excluded:
Module version for: 2015/6

Module Convenor: Prof Frank Mayle

Email: f.mayle@reading.ac.uk

Summary module description:
This module aims to unravel the long-term (multi-millennial scale) history of tropical forests using a range of complimentary approaches and disciplines – e.g. palaeoecology, archaeology and anthropology. This inter-disciplinary perspective integrates physical and human geography, ecology, and archaeology. The module focuses on tropical Latin America and revolves around several key questions: 1) What have been the interrelationships between climate change, human land use (e.g. burning and agriculture), and tropical forest ecosystems through the Holocene, i.e. the last ca. 11,000 years? 2) What is the origin of current patterns of biodiversity? 3) What are the implications of this historical perspective for conservation policy and understanding the fate of tropical forests over the 21st century? 4) To what extent have past cultures/civilisations been constrained by, or benefited from, their tropical surroundings and why did they collapse?

To learn the principles and applications of tropical palaeoecology as a tool for understanding the relationship between tropical ecosystems, climate change, and human land use over millennial to Quaternary time scales, and the relevance of this long-term perspective for current debates concerning sustainability, resilience, conservation, and climate change.

Assessable learning outcomes:
By the end of this module, it is expected that students will have:
•gained an in-depth understanding of the underlying principles, methods, and applications of different techniques commonly employed in tropical palaeoecology – e.g. pollen, phytoliths, charcoal, stable carbon isotopes
•gained practical expertise in tropical pollen identification and analysis, as well as compilation and interpretation of fossil pollen diagrams – via a series of microscope-based practical classes
•developed a critical understanding of the contribution that palaeoecological data can make toward tropical plant ecology (ecosystem resilience/sensitivity to disturbance, rates of change, origin of biodiversity, plant succession), patterns and drivers of past climate change, past human-environment interactions, and conservation policy
• an in-depth and up-to-date knowledge of key published literature in tropical palaeoecology
•a comprehensive understanding of the relative strengths, limitations, and potential of different types of palaeovegetation proxy data – pollen, isotopes, phytoliths, charcoal etc.
•a full understanding of the relevance of millennial-Quaternary-scale palaeoenvironmental time series for understanding the underlying drivers and impacts of present and future environmental change.

Additional outcomes:
Students will become proficient in microscopy; appreciate the value (and challenge) of integrating different approaches, techniques and philosophies across a range of disciplines (e.g. biology, archaeology, geography/geology); critical thinking, constructing/testing hypotheses, and developing scientific arguments; team-work, debating skills, and effective written and oral communication of ideas and findings. Students will gain first hand experience of tropical plant species via a 1-day guided trip to Kew Gardens.

Outline content:
Lecture content includes: the principles and applications of key palaeoecological techniques (fossil pollen, phytoliths, charcoal, stable carbon isotopes) used for reconstructing the long-term (millennial-Holocene scale) histories of terrestrial tropical ecosystems (tropical forests and savannas), drawing upon case studies from the Neotropics; the implications of these palaeovegetation reconstructions for understanding tropical ecosystem ecology, carbon cycling, past climate change, and past human land use; the synergistic relationship and interactions between tropical ecosystems, climate, fire, and human societies over millennial-Holocene time scales; relevance of long-term fossil pollen records for testing Earth System models, predicting ecosystem response to future climate change, and conservation policy; contribution of a palaeoecological perspective for understanding concepts such as vulnerability/resilience, stability/instability, pristine/anthropogenic, rates of change, thresholds, ecosystem services etc, with respect to tropical ecosystems.
Microscope-based practical classes will cover: the identification of pollen from tropical rainforest, dry forest and savannah taxa; analyses of fossil pollen assemblages from lake/bog sediment cores to reconstruct millennial-Holocene scale vegetation histories.
Seminars/tutorials will involve student-led talks and discussions which will build upon topics and themes referred to in the lectures.

Global context:
In addition to a range of temporal scales from millennial to Holocene, spatial scales will range from local to regional to global. Most case studies in the lectures will be drawn from ecosystems in the Neotropics – which are globally important in terms of biodiversity, carbon cycling and climate/hydrology – although other tropical regions (e.g. Africa, SE Asia) will be explored in tutorials and seminars.

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
The module comprises 10 lectures (each lasting 1 hour), 3 seminars (each lasting 1 hour), and 9 hours of laboratory-based practical work (3 sessions, each lasting 3 hours). Each seminar will involve a PowerPoint presentation (1-2 students depending upon class numbers) followed by a class discussion. In addition to the classroom and laboratory based teaching, the students will attend a guided one-day field trip to Kew Gardens to familiarise themselves with tropical plant species (8 hours).

Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 10
Seminars 3
Practicals classes and workshops 9
External visits 8
Guided independent study 170
Total hours by term 200.00
Total hours for module 200.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Written exam 50
Report 50

Other information on summative assessment:

Formative assessment methods:
Seminar presentations and class discussions.

Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convener will apply the following penalties for work submitted late, in accordance with the University policy.

  • where the piece of work is submitted up to one calendar week after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for the piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Length of examination:

    Requirements for a pass:

    Reassessment arrangements:
    Resubmission of coursework in August.

    Last updated: 11 March 2015

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