PM3A-Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation D

Module Provider: Pharmacy
Number of credits: 40 [20 ECTS credits]
Level:6
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring / Summer module
Pre-requisites: PM2A2 Therapeutics and medicines optimisation A2: Molecules and Medicines or PM2A2M Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation A: Molecules and Medicines (UoRM Campus) and PM2B Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation B: A Journey Through the GI Tract or PM2BM Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation B: A Journey Through the GI Tract (UoRM Campus) and PM2C2 Therapeutics and medicines optimisation C2: Therapeutics and Patient care or PM2C2M Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation C2: Therapeutics and
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Co-requisites: PM3B Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation E and PM3C Delivering Pharmacy Services 2
Modules excluded:
Current from: 2018/9

Module Convenor: Dr Hisham Al-Obaidi

Email: h.al-obaidi@reading.ac.uk

Type of module:

Summary module description:

This module brings into context material taught in Part 2 modules involving analytical and formulation science and therapeutics. It initially focuses teaching around the therapeutic area of immunology and infections (building on microbiology and infections material taught in Part 1 and 2), allergy, immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease. The module then introduces medical conditions related to reproductive health (which is linked to endocrinology teaching in PM3B), the skin/dermatology, eye, ear, nose and throat. Each topic includes aspects of physiology, pathology, disease management and prevention, medicine design and patient management. In addition, tissue engineering for skin and eye conditions is introduced. Medicines design is considered for local administration and systemic delivery via the administration routes relevant to the systems covered here (e.g. topical administration through the skin, eyes and ears and vaginal administration of medicines), using appropriate examples that link to PM3B and PM3C. Basic First Aid including CPR and use of defibrillators is also covered.


Aims:

This module aims to build upon the core science and practice concepts taught in parts 1 and 2, encouraging students to apply them to a range of new medical conditions and pharmaceutical challenges. It also introduces more advanced concepts in pharmacy-related sciences and patient management.


Assessable learning outcomes:
Core module “systems”:
Immunology & Infections; Dermatology; Eye, Ear and Nose; Reproductive system & Men’s and Women’s Health

Students will be able to:
• Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the core “systems” listed above
• Discuss the aetiology, pathology, diagnosis and prevention of medical conditions affecting these “systems”
• Discuss the non-drug management of these medical conditions, including complementary medicine where appropriate
• Discuss the pharmaceutical management of these medical conditions, including:
o Drug treatment options and their place in therapy (including natural products where relevant)
o The evidence available and its utilisation to support recommendations for disease management
o Drug chemistry, discovery, design and delivery of drug treatment options (including formulations, biopharmaceutics and devices for injectable, ocular, otic, nasal, vaginal, topical and transdermal delivery)
o Pharmacology (including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics) of drugs used in treatment
o Monitoring for safety and efficacy of treatment and action that should be taken in view of results obtained
o Patient centred care and medicines optimisation: tailoring treatment to the individual, personalised medicine, effect of disease on the patient, health beliefs & behaviours, promoting adherence and self-care, providing medicines-related information with a knowledge of health policies
o The role of the pharmacist, including how they may work with public groups to improve outcomes
o How pharmacists may work with other healthcare professionals to achieve effective patient care
o Public health aspects, where appropriate
• Identify and accurately record patient data relevant to pharmaceutical care
• Discuss and demonstrate how the science of pharmacy is applied in the design and development of medicines and devices towards the packaging and storage of, and safe and rational use of medicines
• Prepare patient information leaflets for the instruction of safe and effective use of medicines
• Promote public health through the preparation and presentation of public health promotion materials
• Communicate effectively and support colleagues within a team and demonstrate leadership skills while working in a team and present information to a wider audience

Additional outcomes:
In addition to the assessed outcomes, this module develops students’ skills towards additional learning outcomes that are summatively assessed in other Part 3 modules or later in the programme. These are skills relating to health and safety, quality management of medicines and maintaining records and communicating with patients (e.g. patient counselling, responding to symptoms).

Outline content:

Introduction to module

• Puts the module in context with Part 3 teaching and explains the key concepts covered within the module

Immunology

• Introduction to the immune system 

• Atopy / hypersensitivity: food allergies, hayfever, adverse drug reactions

• Autoimmune diseases: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Coeliac disease, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Grave’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, psoriasis

• Immunodeficiency and immunocompromisation: HIV/AIDs

• Immunosuppressants

Infection

• Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic conditions

• Vaccination

• Infection control 

• Antimicrobial therapy (including advanced synthesis and manufacture of penicillins); antimicrobial resistance & antimicrobial stewardship

• Infections in core systems (across PM3A and PM3B as well as core systems introduced in Part 2)



Dermatology

• The dermatological / integumentary system

• Diseases affecting the skin: tinea infections (nappy rash, athlete’s foot, ringworm, “jock itch”), cellulitis, cold sores, warts, calluses, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, scabies, lice, boils, alopecia, hyper/hypo-pigmentation, burns, impetigo, nail infections (onychomycosis), sunburn, skin cancer

• Adverse drug reactions affecting the skin 

• Responding to symptoms – minor ailments affecting the skin

• Wounds and wound healing, dressings

• Formulation of medicines for topical dermal and transdermal delivery (also linked to men’s and women’s health – e.g. testosterone gel, HRT patch)

• Tissue engineering – skin substitutes, cellular and non-cellular therapy



Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat 

Diseases of the ear, eye, nose and throat typically encountered by pharmacists:

• Ear (e.g. otitis media, otitis externa, ear wax), drugs causing ototoxicity

• Eye disorders (e.g. blepharitis, conjunctivitis, glaucoma, dry eyes), side effects of drugs on the eye – blurred vision, change in pigmentation etc. issues with contact lenses.

• Nose: congestion - hayfever & cough/cold, polyps

• Throat: pharyngitis, tonsillitis

• Responding to symptoms – minor ailments affecting the eyes & ears

• Formulation of medicines for ocular, otic and nasal delivery

• Tissue engineering – ocular surface stem cell therapy



Reproductive, Men’s and Women’s Health

• Development of the reproductive system, puberty and the menstrual cycle

• Fertility and pregnancy. Contraception and contraceptive devices

• Women’s health: menstrual cycle disorders including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, menopause, endometriosis, infertility, vaginal atrophy, contraceptives, vaginal thrush, cystitis, bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, breast cancer 

• Formulation of medicines for vaginal delivery

• Men’s health: impotence/erectile dysfunction (including as side effects of drugs), infertility, benign prostatic hyperplasia, testicular cancer, male-pattern baldness.

• Sexual health: sexually transmitted infections – Chlamydia, syphilis, genital herpes, gonorrhoea, human papillomavirus, trichomoniasis, link to HIV/AIDS

• Genitourinary health: urinary tract infection, incontinence, urinary retention



Practical classes: 

Practical classes form part of the Pa

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:

Teaching and learning methods are through lectures, workshops, practical classes, problem-based learning and directed private study. There are two additional workshop-style sessions linked to supporting students with their personal and academic development (PAD) portfolio and independent study time allocated to this activity. Three two-hour tutorial/feedback sessions are also timetabled to support students in their preparation for assessments. Student learning in this module will be supported by a Symposium to be held in spring term around the core systems covered throughout Parts 2 and 3.


Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 36 30
Seminars 4
Tutorials 2 2 2
Practicals classes and workshops 28 28
Guided independent study 110 120 38
       
Total hours by term 180.00 180.00 40.00
       
Total hours for module 400.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Written exam 30
Written assignment including essay 10
Project output other than dissertation 10
Class test administered by School 50

Summative assessment- Examinations:

The final synoptic examination will assess content of PM3A and PM3C and will include, where relevant, concepts covered in PM3B and previous years of the programme. This will be worth 30% of the module marks.



Length of exam 3 hours.


Summative assessment- Coursework and in-class tests:

Formative assessment and associated feedback forms a large proportion of the module, with students taking part in a variety of learning opportunities (PBL classes, tutorials, workshops, practical classes). These activities include formative assessments and associated feedback.

Part 3 assessment is fully integrated across the year and includes two pieces of assessed coursework from this module; the written assignment is linked with the infections PBL, which is an individual activity with summative assessment elements worth 10% of the module marks. There will also be a Medicines Design 2 project that will be worth 10% of the module marks.



In addition to summatively-assessed course work, students will take two in-course examinations, each worth 25% of the final module mark; one at the beginning of Spring term (January) and the other in Summer term (April). The January assessment (departmentally administered examination) will cover material taught in the Autumn term, whilst the April/May assessment will cover material taught in the Spring term. The assessments will be in the form of MCQs and will be of 2 hours’ duration (1 hour for PM3A content and 1 hour for PM3B content).  They will also include relevant content from PM3C.


Formative assessment methods:

Each term will have a minimum of one formatively assessed activity. In Autumn term there is an Immune System-based workshop on anaphylaxis. In Spring term there will be formative assessment of presentations that form part of the Core Systems Symposium.


Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convener will apply the following penalties for work submitted late:

  • where the piece of work is submitted after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for that piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day[1] (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Assessment requirements for a pass:
    The student shall normally be required to achieve an overall weighted average of at least 40% for the module .

    Reassessment arrangements:

    Reassessment of coursework will be by resubmission of coursework or submission of equivalent pieces of work, as appropriate.  Reassessment of departmentally administered examinations (MCQs) or the synoptic examination will be by MCQ or written examination, as appropriate.  Reassessment will be conducted in August. 


    Additional Costs (specified where applicable):
    1) Required text books: The University library has a large number of text books and specialised reading material. There are also an excellent number of e-books available to the students. There might be core text books, which the students wish to purchase at varying costs.
    2) Specialist equipment or materials: None
    3) Specialist clothing, footwear or headgear: None but students must be appropriately dressed for laboratory-based practical sessions.
    4) Printing and binding: There are no specific printing costs as work is submitted electronically through Blackboard. Should students may wish to print teaching materials and currently library costs for printing are 5p a sheet (black &white).
    5) Computers and devices with a particular specification: None
    6) Travel, accommodation and subsistence: None

    Last updated: 24 September 2018

    THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS MODULE DESCRIPTION DOES NOT FORM ANY PART OF A STUDENT'S CONTRACT.

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