PM2D-Delivering Pharmacy Services

Module Provider: Pharmacy
Number of credits: 20 [10 ECTS credits]
Level:5
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring / Summer module
Pre-requisites: PM1A Fundamentals of Physiology and PM1B Medicines Discovery, Design, Development and Delivery and PM1C Introduction to Professionalism and Practice
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Co-requisites: PM2A Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation A: Molecules and Medicines and PM2B Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation B: A Journey Through the GI Tract and PM2C Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation C: Therapeutics and Patient Care
Modules excluded:
Current from: 2019/0

Module Convenor: Dr Rosemary Lim

Email: r.h.m.lim@reading.ac.uk

Type of module:

Summary module description:
This module focuses on pharmacy practice concepts and skills development, building on themes introduced in PM1B and PM1C, for example: interpreting and assessing prescriptions, dispensing, NHS and health policy affecting pharmacy, medicines-related legislation and community pharmacy services. The module also introduces alternative medicines and hospital pharmacy, teaching skills such as monitoring of drug therapies, medicines reconciliation and pharmaceutical care. The examples used in class are aligned to the Part 2 main therapeutic topics and pharmaceutical chemistry and drug delivery concepts are integrated into lectures and workshops where relevant. These skills will be put into practice through placement experience in structured hospital visits. Science and practice-focused calculation skills are revisited in workshops and assessed summatively. The module also considers patient-centred care, developing communication skills whilst considering social, environmental, lifestyle and cultural factors that impact on health.

Aims:

This module aims to provide students with the opportunity to develop their skills in professional practice whilst using their core science knowledge (gained from Part 1 and PM2A2, PM2B and PM2C2). Using an integrated learning approach, the module aims to demonstrate to students how science impacts on professional practice, with applications to a range of sectors including community, hospital and industrial pharmacy.


Assessable learning outcomes:

Students will be able to: • Recognise and discuss the ethical and legal aspects of drug procurement, sale, supply and use, including issues related to controlled drugs (including disposal), private prescriptions, emergency supplies, wholesale dealing, veterinary medicines, non-medicinal products and unlicensed and off-license use of medicines • Interpret, assess and process prescriptions (i.e. legal and clinical validation) and other requests for medicines and suggest appropriate action to be taken to resolve identified issues. This will include dispensing, labelling, endorsing, recording and supply of human and veterinary medicines • Explain why medicines errors may occur and how they may be prevented, including the use of near-miss logs and error reporting. • Recognise and interpret appropriate sources of information that may be used in taking a drug history and discuss different patient consultation techniques. • Explain the process of medicines reconciliation • Describe how to assess hospital drug charts for clinical appropriateness and validity • Recommend, interpret and explain appropriate patient and clinical monitoring parameters • Explain the term “pharmaceutical care” and apply this to the development of a patient centred pharmaceutical care plan • Prepare information to support patients in managing their medicines • Discuss social, environmental, lifestyle and dietary factors that influence health • Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of NHS/health policies, the Community Pharmacy Contractual Framework, and explain how community pharmacy services are reimbursed and remunerated • Discuss the identification and management of minor ailments affecting the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, renal system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Make appropriate recommendations regarding complex responding to symptoms scenarios. • Discuss the use of Traditional/Complementary and Alternative medicines, including regulatory aspects of herbal medicines and other complementary medicines. • Identify drug interactions using science as the basis for recommendations for management, including relevant counselling points and advice. • Perform science and practice-focused calculations accurately including verifying the safety of doses and administration rates • Use reference sources (e.g. BNF, Medicines Complete, eMC, the Drug Tariff and MEP) effectively


Additional outcomes:
In addition to the assessed outcomes, this module continues to develop students’ communication, both orally and in written format, using language appropriate to different types of audiences. Students will also further develop their team working skills. They will be provided with the opportunity to develop their skills in patient consultation and providing medicines-related information through supervised visits to the Royal Berkshire Hospital. They will also gain further insight into community pharmacy and be able to apply their knowledge to real life situations during a community pharmacy placement.
Critical appraisal skills will be further developed and are summatively assessed in other Part 2 modules or later in the programme.

Outline content:


  • Introduction to module: Put module in context with Part 2 teaching and explain the key concepts covered in the module, integrating science into professional practice focusing on three therapeutic areas: GI tract, respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

  • Pharmacy law and regulations: Series of lectures covering The Medicines Act 1968 & Human Medicines Regulations 2012, Misuse of Drugs Act & Regulations and Veterinary Medicines Regulations, building upon PM1C to cover the full range of commonly encountered prescriptions and supply types (e.g. FP10PCD, controlled drugs, private, emergency supplies, wholesale dealing, veterinary, non-medical prescribing, unlicensed and off-licence use of medicines). Poisons, reagents and denatured alcohol. Patient Group Directions. These lectures are closely linked with practical classes to further develop skills in interpreting, labelling, dispensing and supplying medicines, using medications covered in other Part 2 modules as illustrative examples.

  • Pharmacy Ethics: Ethical theories and decision making

  • Medicines Safety:  understanding causes of errors including the use of human factors.

  • Community pharmacy services: Lectures covering commissioning of community pharmacy services, the community pharmacy contractual framework, the three tiers of community services, the role and function of NHS Prescription Services and remuneration and reimbursement of pharmacy services.

  • Introduction to hospital pharmacy: Hospital drug charts, drug therapy monitoring and pharmaceutical care planning are introduced using therapeutic areas covered in other part 2 modules (GIT, cardiovascular, renal and respiratory diseases).

  • Alternative medicines: The use of Traditional/Complementary and Alternative medicines are introduced, including regulatory aspects of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and supplements.

  • Calculations: Pharmaceutical and practice related calculations are covered across the Part 2 programme.

  • Patient centred care: Series of lectures and workshops covering concordance, adherence, compliance, communication and consultation skills, health literacy, health inequalities and how social, lifestyle and environmental factors influence health. Students are asked to consider the science behind a full range of drug interactions. Many of the clinical aspects of the course are brought together with the main Part 2 therapeutics areas in a series of workshops and lectures on pharmaceutical care of patients.

  • Placement visit: Students put the skills gained from Part 1 and other Part 2 modules into practice through placement experience in a hospital and community pharmacy.


Brief description of teaching and learning methods:

Teaching and learning methods are lectures, workshops, practical classes, placement visits and directed private study. Tutorial/feedback sessions and peer assisted learning sessions are also timetabled to support students in their content learning and understanding. 



Attendance to all teaching sessions is required and poor attendance will be recorded in the student’s personal file. Students failing to complete and engage in pharmacy visits, placements and interprofessional education sessions will not be permitted to complete the programme.


Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 24 20
Tutorials 6 5
Practicals classes and workshops 22 20
External visits 4 4
Guided independent study:      
    Wider reading (independent) 37 51
    Peer assisted learning 7
       
Total hours by term 100 100 0
       
Total hours for module 200

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Written exam 70
Written assignment including essay 10
Class test administered by School 20

Summative assessment- Examinations:

One 3-hour written examination.


Summative assessment- Coursework and in-class tests:

Two in-class tests: taken in one sitting, each lasting 45 minutes each, usually takes place in week 7 in the Autumn Term. Test 1 relates to pharmaceutical calculations and Test 2 relates to the use of the British National Formulary.



One piece of written coursework: relates to the hospital placement. Submission date is usually in the first or second week of the Spring Term.


Formative assessment methods:

Formative assessment and associated feedback forms a large proportion of the module, with students provided with tutorials, peer-assisted learning to help them prepare for the class tests (in autumn term) and final examination (in summer term).



Knowledge and skills gained through this module will also be assessed in other part 2 modules.



Prescription Analysis and Medicines Supply (PAMS) workshop tasks are individually marked and feedback provided; they will also undertake a PAMS practise workshop in preparation for the Part 3 summative PAMS assessment. Students are formatively assessed on their consultation skills using the consultation framework. Students can self-assess additional workshop tasks through feedback on Blackboard.


Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convener will apply the following penalties for work submitted late:

  • where the piece of work is submitted after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for that piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day[1] (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Assessment requirements for a pass:
    Students must obtain an overall module mark of 40% and obtain at least 40% in the written examination.

    Reassessment arrangements:

    Reassessment is by re-examination in August, with a pass mark of 40% in each exam. Failed coursework may be reassessed by an alternative piece of work, before or during the August examination period.


    Additional Costs (specified where applicable):

    Required text books: £40

    Printing and binding: £5-£10

    Travel, accommodation and subsistence: Variable - travel to community pharmacy placement


    Last updated: 8 April 2019

    THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS MODULE DESCRIPTION DOES NOT FORM ANY PART OF A STUDENT'S CONTRACT.

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