PM2C2-Therapeutics and medicines optimisation C2: Therapeutics and Patient care

Module Provider: Pharmacy
Number of credits: 35 [17.5 ECTS credits]
Level:5
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring / Summer module
Pre-requisites: PM1A Fundamentals of Physiology and PM1B Medicines Discovery, Design, Development and Delivery and PM1C Introduction to Professionalism and Practice
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Co-requisites: PM2A2 Therapeutics and medicines optimisation A2: Molecules and Medicines and PM2B Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation B: A Journey Through the GI Tract and PM2D Delivering Pharmacy Services
Modules excluded:
Current from: 2018/9

Module Convenor: Dr Silvia Amadesi

Email: s.amadesi@reading.ac.uk

Type of module:

Summary module description:
This module introduces students to concepts of pharmacology and also integrates physiology, chemistry, therapeutics and practice with a focus on respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases. The module includes core science concepts in the areas of physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, formulation and synthetic chemistry, and pharmacy practice. Training in clinical pharmacology concepts is supported by practical classes, integrated therapeutics and practice workshops and problem-based learning exercises. Students will learn about: how drugs act in the human body to give wanted and unwanted effects, how these effects may be achieved or prevented depending on the choice of dosage form selected, advice given to patients and patient compliance. These integrated activities will require the use of the knowledge and understanding acquired in respiratory, cardiovascular and renal therapeutics, as well as in other areas of pharmaceutical science and pharmacy practice. Together, these will help the development of an understanding of key therapeutic areas and associated pharmaceutical and pharmacy practice issues. Science and practice concepts from all cognate disciplines that link to therapeutic topics are taught. This includes: physiology and pathology of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal systems, medicine development and delivery, medicines management (e.g. case study solving; care plan compilation), responding to symptoms and patient-centered care and counselling (e.g. smoking cessation; use of devices for correct delivery of inhaled drugs).

Aims:
This module aims to provide students with an understanding of the fundamental concepts of pharmacology. This is set in the context of human respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases and related therapeutics with strong integration of physiology themes taught during the first year. The module also provides the basis for the therapeutics modules taught in later years. To achieve that, the core science and practice concepts detailed in the summary above will be taught using an appropriate range of teaching activities to allow integration of the disciplines that link to the therapeutic topics of the module.

Assessable learning outcomes:
Students will be able to:
• Describe how drugs work by binding to receptors in the body.
• Describe the concepts of agonism and antagonism at receptors, drug potency, affinity and efficacy.
• Interpret from experimental data, the affinity and efficacy values of drugs and discuss the meaning of these values for a pharmacological purpose, including statistical analysis.
• Apply pharmacological principles, develop an understanding and demonstrate skills in pharmacological methodology.
• Understand how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolised and excreted (ADME).
• Define toxicology and discuss its basic concepts.
• Discuss the therapeutics of common drugs used to treat diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular and renal systems.
• Develop skills and knowledge of drug design and synthesis for drugs used to treat respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases.
• Describe drug delivery to the lungs (including core pharmaceutical science and elements of counselling/practice).
• Describe parenteral delivery in relation to examples of therapeutic content.
• Analyse and discuss risks factors, aetiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and symptoms of the most important respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases
• Discuss, examine and choose the more appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches including appropriate dosage forms for the management of the above diseases e.g., complete care-plans using evidence-based approaches and decisions.
• Develop skills and knowledge to provide patients with appropriate care, counselling and advice on therapeutics including use of medicines and administration, correct use of devices and diagnostics.
• Develop the ability to identify inappropriate health behaviours and recommend suitable approaches for interventions e.g., changes in patient life style; non-pharmacological approaches to diseases.
• Describe diagnostic and biological markers, identify and employ the appropriate diagnostic or physiological testing techniques to promote patient health. Solve case studies, practice medicines management and counselling of patient with cardiovascular, respiratory and renal diseases.
• Communicate effectively within a team and communicate findings to a wider audience.

Additional outcomes:
Working in small groups during laboratory practical classes and workshops, will improve team-working skills, team-based and self-directed learning. Problem-based learning activities will provide a structured framework for group work, encourage contribution to the development of other members of the team through coaching and feedback, independent searching and evaluation of the literature and evidence-based information, improvement of communication skills, development of self-learning skills for lifelong learning. Some of these outcomes are assessed summatively here.

Outline content:

Introduction to the module: To introduce the role of pharmacology within the context of assessing the effects that drugs produce within the body and the effects that the body produces on drugs. Therapeutic topics of the module will be outlined.



Concepts of Pharmacology: Series of lectures introducing pharmacology concepts, terminology, methodologies and analytical concepts to cover the following topics:




  • how drugs act by binding to different types of receptors and activating molecular pathways.

  • drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

  • toxicology and damage produced by exogenous chemicals.

  • how drug responses are assessed and analysed. Applied pharmacology practicals and workshops.



Human diseases and therapeutics of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal systems: lectures, problem-based learning and case solving, specialized seminars (delivered by external speakers such as respiratory and cardiovascular pharmacists), discussions in workshops with pharmacologists, pharmacy practice specialists and other health care providers will provide an integrated understanding of applied clinical pharmacology and practice. Respiratory diseases and therapeutics: Series of lecture that cover the physiology of the respiratory system, aetiology and pathology of the major diseases of the respiratory tract, formulations for delivery to the lung, related therapeutics and clinical management with integrated problem-based learning. Activities will:




  • Focus on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Tuberculosis, Community and Hospital acquired Pneumonia cough and cystic fibrosis.

  • Provide an overview of pathogenesis and therapeutics of other respiratory diseases.

  • Cover aspects of asthma and COPD clinical management providing students with insights on the practice and on the role of the pharmacist in this contest e.g., understand and recognise symptoms; provide counselling on life style changes; advices on correct dosage, form and use of devices for delivery of drug.

  • Discuss the key drugs for the management of respiratory conditions with reference to the drug structure-activity relationship, stability and design for appropriate drug forms to deliver to target i.e., respiratory system.

  • Formulations and devices for delivery to the lungs: administration of medicines to lungs; analysis of this route of administration to achieve both systemic and local effects e.g. nasal and systemic delivery of drugs; analysis of the different devices to be used and recommended e.g., type of inhalers. 



Cardiovascular diseases and therapeutics: Series of lectures that cover the physiology, aetiology and pathology of the major diseases and condition affecting the cardiovascular system with integrated problem-based learning. Lectures and activities will:




  • Focus on hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, atherosclerosis, thromboembolic prophylaxis and stroke, anaemia. Lectures will provide insights into disease’s symptoms, pharmacological management, drug effects and side effects, contraindication and interaction for medicines used to treat human diseases affecting the circulatory systems.

  • Provide an overview of therapeutics of other cardiovascular conditions.

  • Discuss the key drugs for the management of cardiovascular conditions with integration to pharmaceutics and chemistry e.g., reference to the drug structure-activity relationship, stability and design for appropriate drug forms to deliver to target i.e. circulatory system.

  • Cover diagnostic, medicines and care plan management, counselling and role of the pharmacist in dealing with patient with cardiovascular diseases.
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Brief description of teaching and learning methods:

The course content will be provided through a mixture of formal lectures, interactive lectures, problem-based learning workshops using appropriate clinical case studies, practical laboratory classes, inter-professional learning activities and seminars/workshops delivered by specialised health care professionals. Attendance to all teaching sessions is required and poor attendance will be recorded in the student’s personal file. Students failing to complete and engage in pharmacy visits, placements and interprofessional education sessions will not be permitted to complete the programme.



Teaching and learning will be facilitated using AD Instrument Lab Tutor hardware and software exercises. Supplementary information and reading list will be provided by the lecturers and the available facilities for computer-aided literature searching for related material will enable students to improve independent-learning skills.



There will be a series of practical classes associated with the module that reinforce fundamental concepts of pharmacology that underpin therapeutics but also integrate knowledge from pharmaceutics and practice areas.




  • Guinea Pig ileum bioassay. This will provide practical experience on fundamental pharmacology concepts and approaches to pharmacological characterisation of drugs and their effects. The practical will allow integration of knowledge developed in other modules (e.g., PM1A and PM2B) and also provide appropriate skills and understanding for advanced therapeutics topics.

  • Respiratory diseases: diagnosis, medicines and related pharmacy practice. This is a two session activity. The first session  provides practical experience and knowledge and skills on using diagnostic devices to assess lung functions and respiratory diseases and how to monitor asthma symptoms and efficacy of treatments i.e. use of peak flow meters.  The second session is an intraprofessional learning activity where students will: practice the use of inhalers and nebulizers and discuss their use for the management of different respiratory conditions and different type of patients; appreciate and practice inhaler technique training and how to assist and provide counselling to patients on the use of different inhalers; analyse and solve  real case studies within a  multipofessional team-based work.

  • Understanding cardiovascular therapeutics and diseases: from theory to practice. This is a three session practical. In the first session, students will look at the effect of drugs on the regulation of the vascular tone of rabbit aorta. In the second session, students will investigate structure-activity relationships responsible for the different behaviours of the drug tested. In the third session, students will learn about lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, analyse real case studies and practice health check and counselling on cardiovascular related areas.



Concepts that underpin respiratory, cardiovascular and renal therapeutics will be supported by problem-based learning exercises.




  • Renal therapeutics PBL. Students will work as a group through different case studies relating to different renal disorders. For each exercise, students are expected to suggest an appropriate treatment including non-pharmacological options, complete a relevant care plan and explain underlying problems and interactions with other drugs taken by the patientRespiratory therapeutics PBL: Students will work on a case study related to respiratory diseases and produce an individual written article that addresses specific structured questions listed in the case study.

  • Cardiovascular therapeutics PBL: Students will work as a group through different case studies related to cardiovascular diseases. Students will make an oral presentation and produce

Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 28 28
Tutorials 5 5 2
Practicals classes and workshops 15 28
Guided independent study 115 124
       
Total hours by term 163.00 185.00 2.00
       
Total hours for module 350.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Written exam 70
Report 7.5
Oral assessment and presentation 7.5
Class test administered by School 15

Summative assessment- Examinations:
There will be a two-hour in-course test and three-hour final examination.

Summative assessment- Coursework and in-class tests:

Summative assessment is through the written article based on a case study, group oral presentation, written patient-management plan, peer/self-assessment an in-course test. 


Formative assessment methods:

Formative assessment and associated feedback forms a large proportion of the module, with students being provided with workshops, tutorials and online assessments to prepare for the final examination. Formative assessment is provided through compulsory small group tutorials and workshops, instructor-, self-, and peer-led assessment and feedback.


Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convener will apply the following penalties for work submitted late:

  • where the piece of work is submitted after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for that piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day[1] (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Assessment requirements for a pass:
    Students must obtain an overall module mark of 40% and obtain at least 40% in the final examination.

    Reassessment arrangements:

    Reassessment is be-examination in August and will be by written examination.



    Failed coursework may be reassessed by an alternative piece of work, before or during the August examination period. 


    Additional Costs (specified where applicable):

    1) Required text books: The University library has a large number of text books and specialised reading material. There are also an excellent number of e-books available to students. There might be core text books, which the students wish to purchase at varying costs.

    2) Specialist equipment or materials: None

    3) Specialist clothing, footwear or headgear: None

    4) Printing and binding: For PAD portfolios. On average around 100 pages. Currently library costs for printing are 5p a sheet b/w. A simple ring binder can be purchased from stationers for around £3.

    5) Computers and devices with a particular specification: None

    6) Travel, accommodation and subsistence: No travel costs will be incurred.


    Last updated: 20 April 2018

    THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS MODULE DESCRIPTION DOES NOT FORM ANY PART OF A STUDENT'S CONTRACT.

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