Postgraduate Research

Postgraduate students talking


PhD students associated with the theme have close contact with academic staff in the group. As well as the usual supervision arrangements, candidates are invited to participate in reading groups and seminars in the area, encouraged to present conference papers and, wherever possible, given an opportunity to teach in the area. In every way, the theme aims to support candidates in a way that helps position them for their chosen career path on completion of their doctorate.

Postgraduate research proposals are welcomed in all areas of law related to the work of the Property, Transactions and Markets research theme, including intellectual property, information technology, regulation and regulated industries, land, private law and feminist legal studies. Information about current and past research students gives an indication of the range of topics supervised. Detailed information about postgraduate research and funding opportunities in Law can be found in the School's Postgraduate research pages. Prospective candidates who wish to discuss their research proposal should start by contacting the School's Director of Postgraduate Research, Dr Charlotte Smith.

For further information, see what our staff are currently involved in.

Current PhD projects


Ian Johnson Ian Johnson 'Who Cares for the Carers? An analysis of the rights and remedies of informal carers under English law and an account of how these might be extended by original legislation'.


Adnan Farook Adnan Farook Competition Law and High Technology companies

Adnan's research focuses on competition law issues surrounding high technology companies such as software giants and search engines. Due to their important role in the market, such companies could develop monopolistic behaviours or possibly abuse their dominant position; although authorities currently do not intervene extensively in their business practices, in the past there have been some competition law investigations involving Microsoft and Intel where there was authoritative intervention. Adnan explores the situations in which a high technology company may be subject to investigation and offers a systematic theoretical account of the doctrinal position adopted in these investigations. Adnan's research intends to contribute towards understanding and extracting the specific underlying principles in assessing the competitive situation of high technology industries. This would assist the law in effectively evolving at the same pace as technology.

Evelyn Patricia Kirkwood Evelyn Patricia Kirkwood An examination into the current position regarding the right to be forgotten as determined under the Google Spain case and the subsequent control of personal data and a right to a private life following this decision.

My research will look into the new 'right to be forgotten' with particular reference to the decision reached in the Google Spain case whilst looking into how this impacts expectations of privacy. I will look at how expectations of privacy have changed in this age of social media, the subsequent impact of the right to be forgotten on Google and how it in particular, is dealing with the European Court of Justice's decision which will also be relevant in considering the current position. It appears that not only have applications to de- link and subsequent decisions been passed to a third party but a lack of transparency has meant there is no clear understanding on the decision making on applications to remove links. This has resulted in subsequent confusion not only as to what information can be removed but how much control an individual has over their personal data and their ultimate portrayal on the Internet. I aim to bring some clarity to the situation and understand the importance of determining how the use and accessibility of data can help with the free flow of information as seen to be vital to maintaining economic growth without further prejudicing an individual with regard to data protection and privacy.

I recently completed a LLM is Advanced Legal Studies at the University of Reading. Having studied for a BA in Business Law before qualifying as a Solicitor, I have spent many years as an in-house solicitor and company secretary working primarily in financial services. I started my PhD in September 2016.


faceZoi Krokida

How is the online intermediary liability for copyright and trademark infringements regulated and what is the new approach announced by the European Commission in May 2015 as well as its potential challenges on the business model of the online intermediaries and the users.

I will attempt to examine the liability of the online intermediaries for copyright and trademark violations committed on their networks by their users. In particular, I will assess the current regime that regulates the online intermediary liability pursuant to the provisions of the E-Commerce Directive (2000/31/EC), the Enforcement Directive (2004/48/EC), the Copyright Directive ( 2001/29/EC), the bedrock of court rulings handed down by national courts-focusing on the relevant case law in England, Germany and Greece- and the CJEU, as well as the new strategy initiated by the European Commission, the so called "follow the money" approach. Interestingly, by implementing this new strategy, the European policy makers are planning to focus not only on online intermediaries but also on financial intermediaries and advertising processors, such as PayPal and Google AdWords respectively. Advertisers would cut off lawful ads from illegal websites and payment processors might need to monitor and block the transactions of their customers. This has led to a confusion as to which entity should assume legal responsibility and what impact this approach might have on innocent consumers while they purchase goods online. My research's objectives are to assess the existing "blurred" situation, examine the new European initiative and demonstrate what kind of liability should be elucidated in order to preserve the business model of the online intermediaries, but not subordinating the interests of content owners and trademark holders.

I studied law at the Democritus University of Thrace (LL.B) and obtained an LL.M., with specialization in European Commercial Law, from the University of Freiburg. I have been a member of the Athens Bar Association and worked as a lawyer in Greece since 2012.

Mira Marinova Mira Marinova The treatment of fidelity rebates under the EU competition law - beyond the 'as efficient competitor' test

Mira's research examines the treatment of fidelity rebates as one of the most controversial topics in EU competition law. The controversy became extremely feasible after the recent General Court's judgment in Intel and Court of Justice's judgment in Post Danmark II. In both cases, the applicability of effect-based approach and, in particular, the 'As-Efficient-Competitor test' (AEC) test in relation to the anti-competitive effects of fidelity rebates had been raised. The EU Courts in both cases rejected the implementation of the AEC test as irrelevant and has followed the so-called 'form-based' approach that no economic analysis is needed to establish a violation. In contrast, an effect-based approach based on economic analysis had been implemented to the assessment of other categories of abuse on the one hand and the other provisions of the Treaty on the other.

Given the importance of the issue in practice, and the lack of clear and coherent standard to evaluate the legality of fidelity rebates, which create legal uncertainty, Mira's research intends to evaluate the principles underpinning the current case law on fidelity rebates and to develop a comprehensive and systematic framework, which will clarify the appropriate treatment of fidelity rebates beyond the AEC test in accordance with the EU law principles.

Stefanos Merikas Stefanos Merikas Tramp Shipping Pools: An Assessment under the Scope of EU Competition Law

Stefanos' thesis addresses the issue of the legal assessment of shipping pool agreements between undertakings active in tramp maritime services under the scope of EU competition law (especially Article 101 TFEU) taking into account the specific features of the industry, the special nature of these agreements and their potential pro-competitive effects.

Stefanos studied law at the University of Athens (LL.B), obtained an LL.M., with specialization in competition law, from University of London (King's College) and an MSc in Law and Accounting from the London School of Economics (LSE). Since 2005 he has been an attorney-at-law registered in Athens Bar Association and has worked for several years as a legal practitioner.

face Pamela Nika The interaction between monetary policy and banking supervision tasks of the European Central Bank under the existing provisions of the Treaty

Pamela Nika holds a BA in Law from National and Kapodistrian University of Reading and an LLM from University of Reading. She is currently in the process of completing her PhD thesis, which explores the interaction between monetary policy and banking supervision tasks of the European Central Bank under the existing provisions of the Treaty. Her thesis also examines whether the supervisory tasks assigned to European Central Bank with the creation of Single Supervisory Mechanism, could potentially exceed the wording and the intentional meaning of Article 127(6).

face Athanassios Skourtis The Application of a More Economics-based Approach (MEA) and Behavioural Economics in EU Competition Law

Athanassios' research will examine the relationship between the European Commission's "More Economics-Based Approach" to EU Competition Law and the emergence of Behavioural Economics in Antitrust Analysis. The progressing "economisation" of EU Competition Law has been heavily criticised regarding its alleged methodological lacunae and lack of contours, its bringing about a "de-legalisation" of competition law, its compatibility with EU primary law and ECJ jurisprudence, and its affecting legal certainty. Behavioural Economics challenges the basic assumption that all economic players are absolutely rational and claims to be able to detect the antitrust-relevant limitations and biases in human decision-making and to employ the latter in a systematic and predictable manner. Is Behavioural Economics an appropriate tool to inform EU Competition law and policy and address the aforementioned issues and possible shortcomings?

Athanassios studied law at undergraduate level at the University of Athens and obtained an MBLT Degree (Master's in Business Law & Taxation) from the University of Mannheim and a Postgraduate Diploma in EC Competition Law (distance learning) from King's College London. He currently holds a scholarship for his doctoral research from the Academy of Athens. Athanassios has been a member of the Athens Bar Association and has worked as a lawyer in Greece since 2002.

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