Internal, open access

What is good quality feedback?

Students can find it difficult to engage with feedback because it is vague, ambiguous, illegible and full of academic jargon. Even if the feedback is legible and comprehensive, students still might not engage with it. This may be because it's pitched at the wrong level because it doesn't take account of students' prior knowledge or experiences.1

  • Gibbs & Habeshaw provide a ten point summary of good feedback practice.2
  • Shute's3 recent review 'Focus on formative feedback' includes tables which summarise good formative feedback practice.


1. Price, M. (2007) Should we be giving less written feedback? UK Centre for Bioscience Bulletin, No. 22. Autumn. 9.

2. Gibbs, G. & Habeshaw, T. (1989) Preparing to teach: An introduction to effective teaching in higher education. Technical & Educational Services Ltd. 

3. Shute, V.J. (2008) Focus on Formative Feedback Review of Educational Research, 78:1. 153-189.

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