Investigation of Tin (Sn) based alternatives for Cadmium (Cd) in optoelectronic thin film materials
S J Wakeham, G J Hawkins, G R Henderson, N Carthy
Applied Optics, Vol. 47, No. 13, pp. C206-C213 (2008)
Increasing legislation has steadily been introduced throughout the world to restrict the use of heavy metals, particularly cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in high temperature pigments, ceramics, and optoelectronic material applications. Removal of cadmium from thin-film optical and semiconductor device applications has been hampered by the absence of viable alternatives that exhibit similar properties with stability and durability. We describe a range of tin-based compounds that have been deposited and characterized in terms of their optical and mechanical properties and compare them with existing cadmium-based films that currently find widespread use in the optoelectronic and semiconductor industries.