Applicants should note that optional modules are arranged on an annual basis. It is possible that a module may be modified in its content, suspended for a session, or discontinued. New modules may become available in any given year. The final decision on which module options a successful candidate will follow will be made by the Institute in consultation with the candidate before the start of the session. Below is a brief introduction to a selection of our modules.
The Political Economy of Civil War
Conflict has always been present in international affairs. Since the end of the Cold War, however, the sources and patterns of conflict have evolved, and civil wars - often with the involvement of external actors - have become the most prevalent form of conflict. This course examines the changing character of conflict, looking at key sources and explanations for the outbreak of civil wars, both structural and proximate, and examining competing definitions of civil war. It questions the link between poverty, inequality, and social violence, between religion and war, and between ethnicity and war. We will also explore the opportunities for and feasibility of civil war, examining the role played by natural resources, as well as the evolving cast of characters involved in civil wars. Drawing on a diverse range of case studies, the course links civil war to broader theories in International Relations and uses qualitative, quantitative, online, and media sources to complement the reading list.
International Relations Theory
In thinking about contemporary problems in international relations, where should we begin? Theories attempt to provide an answer. They provide ways of conceptualizing the international system, they present arguments about what drives state behaviour, and they reflect on the challenges that face international actors. They also raise questions about how and why the world looks as it does, what we can know about it, how we can change it, and what we ought to do (and not do). This module provides an overview of the principal schools of thought that grapple with these problems within the modern discipline of International Relations. It thereby provides a core academic training for anyone thinking of working in this field and equips students with the intellectual tools required to start to make sense of the many and varied problems we face in the world today.
Conflict & Conflict Resolution
One of the key challenges of our time is the problem of war, especially civil war, and international responses to it. Civil wars not only affect the soldiers and civilians caught up in them, but have often have wider consequences for the countries and regions they affect: they weaken governance, increase poverty, and can spill over into neighbouring countries, e.g. through refugee flows. The international community has also developed a growing range of instruments to respond to the challenge of civil war, including not only peacekeeping operations, but also efforts to reform political, economic, and security institutions in the affected countries. In this module, we engage with the most recent debates on the complex causes of civil conflict, and explore the diverse responses to conflict, from the brokering of peace agreements to efforts to regulate the trade in so-called conflict commodities. Throughout the module, we draw on topical case studies to explore particular issues and examine them in a real world context. (Photo courtesy of the US Army)
The wars and strategies of the early 21st century thus stand in long traditions and have many precedents; only in few aspects are they "new". The "Practice of Strategy" focuses on strategy, as practiced by governments, generals and admirals, on their thinking, planning, and execution of plans, and on the effects of their strategies. The latter can only be understood in the context of how wars were prepared for at the time, how soldiers were recruited, how campaign were carried out, how wars were fought, in what societies, economies, and with what values and culturally embedded beliefs. It is reality - what actually, demonstrably happened - that is at the centre of this module. The survey begins with Antiquity, as European cultures modelled themselves on Antique examples and self-consciously adopted most concepts from Greek and Roman literature. The generals of Modern Times, up to Napoleon and later, sought to live up to the standards of Pericles, Alexander, and Caesar. After the wars of the Age of Enlightenment, paradigmatic of "limited warfare", however, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars supposedly shed all limitations to become "war in its absolute perfection" (Clausewitz). Yet the exponential growth of populations, state organisation, technological innovation and the mass production of the means of war, coupled with the spread of bellicose ideologies led to much worse still from the mid-19th to the mid-20th centuries. Alongside "regular" inter-state wars, we study civil Wars - including insurgencies and counterinsurgencies.
Conflict in the Middle East
The Middle East has recently experienced a wave of potentially transformative revolutions. With the hope for democracy, however, has come the risk of widespread violence and destabilisation. Is the region about to descend into a long, dark 'Arab winter'? This course addresses Middle Eastern conflict as a broad area of inquiry and investigates the political, economic and social conditions from which it arises. It begins with an examination of how the pre-modern heritage of the region, the impact of imperialism, the rise of competing ideologies and the advance of modernisation have shaped contemporary politics and engendered the power struggles of the present day. This is followed by an assessment of the origins and evolution of religious fundamentalism, with a strong focus on political Islam and its many facets. We examine the dynamics of inter-state, intra-state and inter-ethnic conflicts, with a particular focus on Iraq, Iran, Syria and Lebanon and the role of foreign intervention. The course also covers all aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Diplomacy is usually conceived of as entailing interaction between states in the international system, and it is often considered a 'courteous' way to interact that can help to resolve differences and avoid tensions, hostilities, and war. However, since the Second World War, the international system has seen a rapid proliferation of other types of actors, including international organizations, NGOs, and transnational groups. At the same time, threats, crises, and issues of global concern have continued to evolve in new and unexpected ways. As a result, diplomacy has changed as well. This module examines bilateral and multilateral negotiation; foreign policy and diplomatic strategies; negotiation; soft power and public diplomacy; multilateral institutions e.g. UN, WTO, IMF; and disaster, war, and international emergency diplomacy. The course benefits from the ongoing input of current and former high ranking diplomats and other guest speakers, giving students the ability to evaluate theory against actual practice.
International Political Economy
The current economic and financial crisis has increased our need to understand the interaction between states and markets. This module introduces students to the latest theoretical tools in International and Comparative Political Economy, applying them to crucial problems in the world economy. Analysis [of] how politics shapes markets and how markets affect politics at both the international and domestic levels illuminates our experiences in international trade, finance and production over the past five decades. We ask: how has the globalisation of trade and finance affected the autonomy of the state? And what role has the state played in changing production structures of advanced industrialised economies? Further topical issues in development, international sanctions, globalisation, social policy and environmental protection area also considered in the light of key debates, for example the effect of globalisation. Students become acquainted with cutting edge research on pressing challenges for policy makers in the 21st century, including how to promote economic development, and whether economic growth necessarily leads to environmental destruction.
How can we best think about the challenges facing contemporary statesmen and citizens? This module introduces students to the principal theoretical approaches to international order and to the problems associated with it. Incorporating analysis of contemporary statehood, international law and organizations, globalization, and the use of force, it equips students with the intellectual tools required to confront the security, economic, and environmental challenges that dominate contemporary world affairs.
International Security Studies
As the nature of threats, risks, and dangers has changed significantly over the last decades, International Security Studies has struggled to adapt its conceptual and theoretical structure to this new, yet still dangerous world. What are the sources, forms and consequences of international insecurity today? How can we deal with them, perhaps even overcome them? Do traditional theories suffice to guide our inquiries, or do we need new approaches in order to understand this new world? The module is guided by these questions, introducing the students to both traditional and critical theories of security, as well as new ways to study insecurity and the particular political ideologies and doctrines that underpin it, and the practices put into place to manage and alleviate it.
"Modern Strategy" focuses on the practice of the making and the application of strategy in key wars of the Modern Age, looking at governments, generals and admirals, their thinking, planning, and execution of plans, and on the effects of their strategies. These can only be understood in the context of preparations, recruitment, campaign plans and execution, in what societies, economics, and with what values and culturally embedded beliefs. Reality is at the centre, not the theory. The "Early Modern" wars of the 16th and 17th centuries will be studied briefly with an emphasis on aspects with enduring relevance for the present. The wars of the 18th century - paradigmatic of "limited warfare" is followed by examination of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, supposedly shedding their limitations to become "war in its absolute perfection". Yet the exponential growth of populations, state organisation, technological innovation and the mass production of the means of war, coupled with the spread of bellicose ideologies ensured that even worse was to come: the American Civil War, the Franco-Prussian War, and the two world wars. While inter-state wars generally declined in frequency and lethality after 1945, the Korean War, the Indochina wars, the Arab-Israeli wars, and many others bear testimony to the "long peace's" regional confinement to Europe. Civil Wars - including insurgencies and counterinsurgencies - throughout; since 1945 such intra-state wars that claimed most victims. The wars and strategies of the early 21st century thus stand in long traditions.
Postgraduate students enrolling in 2016 will be the first able to take our new Parliamentary Studies module. This highly innovative module is offered in partnership with the Houses of Parliament and is co-taught by parliamentary staff alongside colleagues from the Department of Politics. The module gives students the opportunity to discover the inner workings of Parliament, in theory and in practice, and consider its place in our broader democratic system. Students will develop a detailed knowledge and understanding of the functions of Parliament, how Parliament fits within the wider UK political system, how the UK Parliament compares to legislatures in other democracies and what role the legislature plays in the policy-making process. This understanding will be based on real-world engagement with Parliament and parliamentarians as well as the insights of scholarly research. Each student will shadow one part of Parliament and report regularly on its activities. Members of the parliamentary outreach service will come to Reading to lend their hands-on expertise during some sessions and we will be inviting a series of senior politicians to come as guest speakers. We will also have a trip to Parliament itself during Enhancement Week. This will be an excellent addition to our existing postgraduate modules, giving students direct access to the political world.
The Origins and Causes of War
Scholars in many disciplines have been preoccupied with society's worst disease: war. Biologists have established that humans are not the only species to fight in organised groups; paleoanthropologists have tried to ascertain when war first occurred and why; psychologists enquire into the minds of those who wage it; anthropologists study culturally diverse attitudes to war; while historians generate and political scientists analyse the greatest data bank on wars and conflicts. Is aggression a biologically programmed part of human nature? Is organised violence an intrinsic part of any human society? Is it a function of how societies are organised, and of their acquired values and ideals? This course draws on literature from all of these disciplines and examines examples drawn from all of human history, to reach conclusions about humanity and war from which all other attempts to contain this disease must start.
The Practice of Strategy in History
This module has as initial assumption that strategy is a very pragmatic undertaking.It will show what which features of strategy endure through the ages and which do not. The course has as its focus real practice by real people, and its consequences. It examines through a series of case studies both the positive and the negative evidence of how strategy is done in the real world.
What does "strategy" mean? How has the understanding of the term evolved, and how has it come to mean a comprehensive way to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force? Did "strategies" exist before the Byzantines first defined the term, and was there strategic thinking in the Occident before a key Byzantine text attributed to Leo VI (the Wise) was translated into Western vernaculars? Are there key, recurrent concepts in strategic thinking that have endured despite all the technological, social, economic and political innovations that have occurred since the late Middle Ages? Homing in on the work of key thinkers such as Christine de Pizan, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Jomini, Liddell Hart, Mao Tse Tung, Bernard Brodie and Colin Gray, this module elucidates the great debates about strategy, its political aims and its military means. This module thus complements "Modern Strategy" above in taking a more theoretical and ideational approach to the subject matter of strategic studies.
Terrorism in a Globalising World
This module aims to convey a sense of how terrorism relates to world politics, the individual, and everything in between. It proceeds by examining competing definitions of terrorism and the theoretical and practical implications; past, present and future trends in the history of terrorism; terrorists' motivation and the incentives to choose terrorism as a behaviour; terrorist methods; counter-terrorism options; regional patterns; and historical case studies.
The Politics and Economics of Immigration
We live in an increasingly interdependent world. Increasing population mobility and freedom of movement resulting in global flows of migration, are placing pressures on individual nation-states and raise questions of immigration management: how should minorities be treated, how should migrant integration be facilitated and, how should citizenship laws be determined? While immigration may have positive effects on the economy, it is negative aspects, including job scarcity, the limits of welfare state provision and the power of nationalist sentiments that are often emphasised. The proclamation of the 'failure of multiculturalism', the adoption of stricter immigration policies and the rise of nationalist parties suggest that immigration control is an issue that is becoming increasingly prominent in policy debates and political party agendas. Although strict immigration tends to be associated with the far right, increasingly mainstream parties are also adopting tougher immigration controls.
How may we understand the impact of immigration on societies' politics and economies? Does immigration undermine support for the welfare state? What determines the criteria for inclusion and exclusion? What determines individual attitudes towards immigration? Is immigration the key driving force of far right-wing party support? This course addresses these questions through an analysis of the political and economic consequences of immigration. Adopting a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective, the course provides a broad overview of the theories of and approaches to the study of immigration; it explores the economic and political dimensions of immigration including its impact on labour markets, debt, welfare states and domestic party competition; and examines the ways in which immigration policies are shaped.
Governance, Security, Development
The module introduces students to issues that emerged with the end of the cold war and the subsequent expansion of a liberal system of global governance and development. This process was accompanied by a shift from the predominant focus on the expansion of a capitalist world system to the expansion and protection of a liberal world order based on globalised norms of political, social, and economic conduct, poverty, deprivation and underdevelopment are increasingly coded as security-related rather than economic issues. How Western-dominated structures of global governance respond to these new challenges has become a central aspect of contemporary security studies. As developments in the last two decades have demonstrated, its traditional focus on inter-state competition can no longer account for the emerging global security agenda that focuses on humanitarian as well as military interventions into 'complex emergencies' and internecine conflicts in the 'borderlands of globalisation', and on counterterrorism and counterinsurgency campaigns against the violent resistance against globalisation. The module will enable students to critically reflect on the ideological and theoretical assumptions supporting the 'wars of globalisation' and to critically investigate the causes, conduct, and consequences of these conflicts, both on the national as well as international level.
Building Peace after Civil War
Since the end of the Cold War, the nature of conflict has changed, with civil wars becoming the most prevalent form of conflict and the number and type of actors involved evolving. As a result, the international community has developed new instruments and approaches to resolve conflicts and mitigate their consequences. In this course, we will explore the different approaches chosen by the international community to prevent, manage, and resolve conflicts, assessing both military and non-military instruments, and discuss the factors that promote and hinder effective conflict management. Drawing on a number of recent and contemporary case studies, we will examine peacemaking and negotiating an end to conflict, peacekeeping, statebuilding, and the relationship between peacebuilding and development. We will look at a variety of actors, including major international organizations like the UN, regional organizations, grassroots groups and NGOs, and local groups in war-torn countries, debating who is best-placed to build peace. In addition, we will consider what success looks like in post-conflict peacebuilding and how to measure it. We will draw on a variety of resources, including media and current events, in addition to scholarly work on peacebuilding.
Themes and Issues in Military History and Strategic Studies
Since Antiquity, the methodology of Western authors has been based on the assumption that without the knowledge of the history of wars, no theory of strategy has any credibility. Even more recently, when some writers have neglected this tradition and theorised about strategy on the basis of economic and mathematical formulae, most scholars of strategic studies still regard history as the database for strategic analysis. This is the methodological basis also of this course, which blends military history and strategic studies. Key debates and subjects in both areas are treated in their historical, but also analytical context, including issues of definition, the Classical Heritage, the quest for eternal principles, evolving factors such as the financing of wars, the role of technology in war and in the evolution of strategy, and the impact of religious quarrels and other ideological conflicts, the naval/maritime and the air and nuclear dimensions, insurgencies and counterinsurgency, and other topical issues as they arise.
RESEARCH TRAINING MODULES
Advanced Research Methods in Politics and International Relations
This module builds on the preceding one and allows more detailed exploration of certain methods. These include methods such as statistical analysis, within-case and comparative analysis, critical discourse analysis, and content analysis.
Introduction to Research Methods in Politics and International Relations
This module introduces the basics of social science research methodology, as relevant to Politics and International Relations. It has three components, looking at principles of research design, qualitative research methods, and quantitative research methods.
Philosophical Issues in the Social Sciences
This module addresses the fundamental ontological, epistemological, and ethical issues raised by research in social science. It covers such issues as the nature of truth, the relationship between natural science and social science, the Kuhnian and post-Kuhnian interpretations of science, 'value-freedom', relativism, ideal and nonideal theory, and expertise and junk science.