PM3C-Delivering Pharmacy Services 2

Module Provider: Pharmacy
Number of credits: 40 [20 ECTS credits]
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring / Summer module
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Modules excluded:
Module version for: 2016/7

Module Convenor: Dr Nilesh Patel


Summary module description:
This module focuses on the clinical and professional skills required by a pharmacist to be able to deliver pharmacy services safely and effectively to benefit patients. It uses therapeutic examples that link to the other Part 3 modules to provide a patient-focussed context for learning. In this module, practice concepts are developed beyond the level provided in Part 2, with themes including pharmacy law, regulation and ethics, clinical governance (including audit) and medicines safety, pharmacy services (including the processes involved in procurement and delivering medicines to the patient) and interprofessional working. The module also considers the psychological and behavioural aspects of health and medicines use, again using examples associated with therapeutic systems encountered thus far in the programme. Professional skills are developed towards OSCE and prescription processing assessments. Students will complete a one-week placement in either community or hospital pharmacy as part of this module, during which they will be required to apply their knowledge and skills to patient care. They will also develop their consultation skills through patient interaction in supervised sessions at Royal Berkshire Hospitals Foundation Trust. The students will also apply and integrate their law, ethics and clinical knowledge to debate pharmacy-relevant cases. Reflective practice is an important aspect of this module, which includes assessment of the Personal & Academic Development Portfolio. As students start to focus on applications for pre-registration training, careers support is provided through this module in taught sessions provided by the University’s Careers, Placement and Experience Centre.

This module aims to further students’ previous learning and apply it to a range of scenarios, drawing upon their knowledge and skills to develop their ability to provide core pharmacy services in a safe and effective manner.

Assessable learning outcomes:
Students will be able to:
•Discuss laws relevant to pharmacy and medicines, and work in accordance with these when delivering pharmacy services, including assessing and dispensing prescriptions for medicines for human and veterinary use
•Discuss legal and professional requirements in relation to provision of pharmacy services remotely (e.g. through “online” pharmacies)
•Act appropriately in situations involving professional and ethical dilemmas in accordance with professional codes of conduct:
oIdentify professional and ethical dilemmas, including those that may be encountered in the delivery and management of pharmacy services (e.g. colleagues’ or personal health needs affecting performance, organisational targets vs needs of the patient, sales, marketing and advertising)
oDiscuss possible actions that could be taken in response to an ethical dilemma, and how these relate to the various ethical schools of thought, the law and professional codes of conduct
oSelect a course of action and explain the rationale for this choice
•Discuss how relationships with others (staff, other healthcare professionals, patients and the public) should be maintained, including aspects relevant to equality and diversity, vulnerable people, maintaining patient dignity and maintaining appropriate boundaries. Describe the action that should be taken should inappropriate behaviour be observed in other healthcare professionals
•Discuss NHS and health policies affecting pharmacy and pharmacy services and how they impact on patient outcomes
•Discuss pharmacoeconomics in promoting the effective use of resources, including the use of formularies, prescribing guidelines and PACT data. Explain how the procurement of medicines may be managed to optimise use of resources
•Discuss the principles of clinical governance and quality assurance, and how these can be applied in the provision of pharmacy services
oDiscuss how risks can be minimised through the appropriate design, management and maintenance of resources, systems and processes used in the delivery of pharmacy services
oDiscuss the principles of audit in promoting safe and effective pharmacy services to improve outcomes
oDiscuss the use of off-label, unlicensed and “named-patient” medicines: implications, legal and professional requirements and quality assurance
oDiscuss how human and veterinary medicines should be procured, stored and distributed in accordance with legal requirements and to ensure suitability for use
oDiscuss the action that should be taken should a medication error occur
oDiscuss how patient complaints should be handled in accordance with NHS and professional requirements
oDiscuss how additional professional guidances (moral beliefs, professional boundaries..) impact upon pharmacy practice through lectures and problem-based learning
•Discuss the role of pharmacovigilance in promoting patient safety
•Discuss the evidence behind the use of herbal and complimentary medicines
•Conduct effective consultations in a range of situations, including advising patients on the use of their medicines, responding to minor ailments and obtaining a medication history:
oDiscuss how consultations with patients and healthcare professionals should be conducted
oDiscuss factors (including social and behavioural factors) that may impact upon the consultation
oCommunicate with patients in an effective and professional manner
oAgree an agenda and obtain relevant information through effective questioning
oApply scientific knowledge (e.g. pharmacology and drug interactions) in the identification and communication of appropriate solutions/options, supporting decision-making and responding to further questions/concerns
oConclude the consultation and provide supplementary information where required, making appropriate records wh

Additional outcomes:
In addition to the assessed outcomes, this module develops students’ skills towards additional learning outcomes that are summatively assessed in other Part 3 modules or later in the programme. These are skills relating to health and safety, quality management of medicines and maintaining records and a comprehensive understanding of the role of other healthcare professionals in the multi-disciplinary teams’ care of patients. Through the preparation of the clinical trials briefing, students will have acquired and/or developed advanced information retrieval skills, including use and analysis of published information, and application of statistics to approach scientific writing with confidence. These skills will include the ability to discern and recognise reliable information, to compile information from multiple sources and to interpret and appraise this information to develop a critical awareness of the topic discussed.
Students will gain experience of supporting the development of their peers through the provision of constructive feedback.
Students will also develop their careers-management skills in preparation for making applications for pre-registration training.

Outline content:
Introduction to module: Put module in context with Part 3 teaching, and explain the key concepts covered in the module, and how material from previous and concomitant modules should be drawn upon in this module.
Pharmacy law: Update in changes occurring over previous 12 months; revision of Medicines Act 1968, Human Medicines Regulations 2012 and Misuse of Drugs Act and Regulations, as relevant to Dispensing Simulation Workshops and Examination.
Professionalism and Professional Skills: Communicating with other healthcare professionals (including assertiveness, negotiation and influencing others); decision making skills, judgement skills, applying advanced ethical decision making theories (including examples relating to management e.g. needs of the patient vs organisational target); equality and diversity, protecting vulnerable people, maintaining patient dignity and maintaining boundaries
Pharmacy services: NHS/ Health policy affecting pharmacy; Sales – law and ethics relating to marketing, advertising etc.; online pharmacy; responding to minor ailments (specific cases applicable to material covered in this module); role of GPhC inspectors
Clinical Governance and Quality Assurance: Medicines safety – managing risk in the delivery of pharmacy services (including managing resources and workflow), root cause analysis, handling errors; Audit – process and application of results; Off-label, unlicensed medication and named patient medications; Pharmacovigilance and Yellow Card reporting; Procurement, supply and distribution of medicines; Complaints procedures
Assessing Drug Therapy and Medicines Optimisation: Medicines information enquires and use of specialist texts; Pharmacoeconomics – development of formularies, purpose of prescribing guidelines, PACT data analysis, measuring quality of life; Medicines reconciliation and use of Patients’ Own Drugs; Herbal and complementary medicines (evidence-base); Drug use in special patient groups (e.g. children and elderly); supporting patients’ health literacy (including media reporting of health and medicines and impact on patients); pharmacist prescribing; use of compliance aids

Business, management and leadership: Introduction to business and managerial aspects of pharmacy services.
Workshops: Workshops will be used to support the application of knowledge gained through the lectures described above and those in PM3A and PM3B. For example, using the therapeutic themes from the other modules in Part 3 for simulated responding to symptoms and patient counselling exercises, putting the student in the role of the pharmacist (supports the development of students’ consultation and communications skills). Simulated dispensing workshops (involving a range of prescriptions for human and veterinary medicines) will develop their skills in assessing prescriptions and safely supplying medicines, while a case-based ethical debate, will draw upon decision making and judgement skills in the application of ethical theories to scenarios.
Within this module, students will also undertake work-place based learning at a local hospital, applying the skills learnt within the classroom to the patient environment.
Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
Teaching and learning methods are through lectures, tutorials and workshops, work-based learning and guided independent study. There are additional small-group seminar style sessions linked to supporting students with their personal and academic development (PAD) portfolio with independent study time allocated to this activity. Tutorial/feedback sessions are also timetabled over two terms to support students in their preparation for assessments and to facilitate reflection in preparation for their placement.

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
Teaching and learning methods are through lectures, tutorials and workshops, work-based learning and guided independent study. There are additional small-group seminar style sessions linked to supporting students with their personal and academic development (PAD) portfolio with independent study time allocated to this activity. Tutorial/feedback sessions are also timetabled over two terms to support students in their preparation for assessments and to facilitate reflection in preparation for their placement.

Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 26 23
Seminars 8
Tutorials 7 1
Practicals classes and workshops 25 24 4
Work-based learning 4 4
Guided independent study 100 102 37
Placement 35
Total hours by term 162.00 162.00 76.00
Total hours for module 400.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Portfolio 40
Oral assessment and presentation 30
Practical skills assessment 30

Other information on summative assessment:
Formative assessment and associated feedback forms a large proportion of the module, with students being provided with tutorials and in-class assessments to help them prepare for each of the three assessment areas. Practical classes form part of the PAD portfolio in preparation for assessment in this module. The learning outcomes associated with this module will also be assessed within PM3A and PM3B exams.

Formative assessment methods:

Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convenor will apply the following penalties for work submitted late, in accordance with the University policy.

  • where the piece of work is submitted up to one calendar week after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for the piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at:
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Length of examination:
    There will be no end of year written examination paper.

    Requirements for a pass:
    Students must obtain an overall module mark of 40%. In addition, students must achieve 50% and demonstrate competence in the PAMS assessment in order to pass the module.

    Reassessment arrangements:
    Re-examination of each of the individual assessment areas will be in August/September and will be in the same style as original assessment areas. Students not passing the PAMS competency re-assessment will not be permitted to progress to Part 4 of the MPharm programme.

    Additional Costs (specified where applicable):
    1) Required text books:
    2) Specialist equipment or materials:
    3) Specialist clothing, footwear or headgear:
    4) Printing and binding:
    5) Computers and devices with a particular specification:
    6) Travel, accommodation and subsistence:

    Last updated: 21 December 2016

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