PM3B-Therapeutics and Medicines Optimisation E

Module Provider: Pharmacy
Number of credits: 40 [20 ECTS credits]
Terms in which taught: Autumn / Spring / Summer module
Non-modular pre-requisites:
Modules excluded:
Module version for: 2016/7

Module Convenor: Dr Katrina Bicknell


Summary module description:
This module focuses on the therapeutic areas of endocrine disorders, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, central and peripheral nervous systems, and cancer. The aetiology, pathology, pharmacology and treatments of these conditions are considered. The material is explicitly linked to the therapeutic areas covered in Part 2 and other Part 3 modules, where appropriate. Medicinal, organic and metal-based chemistry concepts and advanced pharmaceutical skills are taught in the context of these therapeutic areas using case studies, integrated workshops and practicals. Numeracy skills are further developed with quantitative aspects of pharmacokinetics brought into context through case studies. In this module, conventional treatments are considered alongside natural products and alternative therapies. In addition, aspects of social pharmacy and skills such as responding to symptoms and improving public health are advanced.

This module aims to introduce students to the conditions and diseases that affect the endocrine system, musculoskeletal system and the peripheral and central nervous systems and cancer, highlighting how these conditions are recognised, diagnosed and treated. Students will be encouraged to draw on and integrate knowledge gained in other modules to develop the foundations to address more challenging clinical concepts.

Assessable learning outcomes:
Core module “systems”:
The Endocrine System, the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems, the Musculoskeletal System & Cancer.

Students will be able to:
• Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the core “systems” of the endocrine system, the peripheral and central nervous systems, musculoskeletal system and cancer
• Discuss the aetiology, pathology, diagnosis and prevention of medical conditions affecting these core systems
• Discuss the non-drug management of these medical conditions, including complementary medicines where appropriate
• Discuss the pharmaceutical management of these medical conditions, including:
o Drug treatment options and their place in therapy (including natural products where relevant) and ethical considerations
o The available evidence and relevant pharmacy policies and their utilisation to support recommendations for disease management
o Discovery, design and delivery of drug treatment options (including formulations (i.e. modified release preparations), biopharmaceutics, devices for injectable delivery and appropriate storage)
o Pharmacology (including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics) of drugs used in treatment
o Monitoring for safety and efficacy of treatment and action that should be taken in view of results obtained
o Patient centred care and medicines optimisation: tailoring treatment to the individual, effect of disease on the patient, health beliefs & behaviours, promoting adherence and self-care, providing medicines-related information
o Responding to minor ailments in patients with these conditions
o The role of the pharmacist, including how they may work with public groups to improve outcomes
o How pharmacists may work with other healthcare professionals to achieve effective patient care
o Public health aspects, where appropriate
• Carry out calculations (including those relevant to dosing, administration rates, determining renal function and drug pharmacokinetics)
• Promote public health through the preparation and presentation of public health promotion materials
• Communicate effectively within a team and in the presentation of information to a wider audience, and support colleagues within the team

Additional outcomes:
In addition to the assessed outcomes, this module develops students’ skills towards additional learning outcomes that are summatively assessed in other Part 3 modules or later in the programme. These are skills relating to health and safety, quality management of medicines and maintaining records and communicating with patients (e.g. patient counselling, responding to symptoms).

During Problem Based Learning and Team Based Learning exercises, students will work within teams and develop peer teaching skills (providing information to support peer learning).

Outline content:
Endocrine disorders:
• Introduction to the endocrine system
• Disorders affecting the thyroid, pituitary and adrenal glands; including Addison’s disease, Cushing’s disease, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and associated tumours
• Steroid hormones: their actions and therapeutic uses
• Chemistry of steroid and sterol-based drugs
• Obesity: endocrine control of appetite and satiety
• Integrated metabolism
• Signs and symptoms of diabetes and its diagnosis, including responding to symptoms
• Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and associated complications
• Pharmacological management of diabetes
• Chemical and pharmaceutical aspects of proteins as active agents
• Insulins and their delivery, including devices
• Clinical management of diabetes, including pharmaceutical care and the impact of diagnosis and treatment on the patient
• Supporting self-care and monitoring in diabetes
• Complications of diabetes and their management. This content will draw together and build on content covered in other Part 2 and 3 modules (i.e. infections, dermatology, ophthalmology, the nervous systems, cardiovascular disease and renal disease)
Musculoskeletal disorders:
• Introduction to the musculoskeletal system
• Fractures and sporting injuries
• Metabolic bone disorders, including osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia and Paget’s disease
• Rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory arthritis
• Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs: their clinical use, associated monitoring and safety considerations (i.e. safe prescribing and drug errors)
• Use of biologics, their formulation, quality assurance and biosimilars
• Osteoarthritis and spondylarthropathies, including ankylosing spondylitis
• Use of metals in medicine, including use of calcium and gold salts in bone and joint conditions
• Pharmaceutical care of musculoskeletal conditions, including identifying adverse drug reactions, monitoring efficacy and supporting patients with impaired dexterity
• Shared-care prescribing between primary and secondary care.
Peripheral and central nervous system:
• The physiology of the peripheral and central nervous systems
• Therapeutic uses of medicines targeting the peripheral nervous system
• Pain management (including migraine and neuropathic pain)
• Delivery and use of local and general anaesthetics
• Non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical management of mental health and central nervous system disorders, including epilepsy, depression, anxiety, dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, multiple sclerosis and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• Treatment and management of patients following cerebrovascular events (e.g. stroke, intracranial haemorrhage)
• Clinical use of drugs with narrow therapeutic windows (i.e. lithium carbonate and phenytoin), including advanced pharmacokinetics
• Chemical and pharmaceutical strategies for targeting the central nervous system
• Substance misuse, including misuse of alcohol, opioids, cannabis and other natural products, stimulants, hallucinogens, Over-The-Counter medicines and drug misuse in sport
• Substance misuse: chemical and pharmaceutical considerations
• Social and behavioural aspects of substance misuse and its adverse outcomes and complications
• Non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical management options (pharmacology and therapeutic use) for addiction
• Roles of pharmacists in the care of drug misusers (health promotion and harm minimisation, needle exchange, supervised consumption)
• Addiction services: perspectives of service users and police representative
• Introduction to cancer
•Pathobiological basis of cancer
•Detection and screening of cancer, including responding to symptoms and strategies for earl

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:
Teaching and learning methods are lectures and workshops, problem-based learning, team-based learning, practical classes, tutorial classes and guided independent study. There are also workshop and drop in sessions linked to supporting students with their health promotion material and personal and academic development (PAD) portfolio with independent study time allocated to this activity.

Contact hours:
  Autumn Spring Summer
Lectures 33 35
Tutorials 3 1
Practicals classes and workshops 12 16 2
Supervised time in studio/workshop 14 19
Guided independent study 100 100 65
Total hours by term 162.00 170.00 68.00
Total hours for module 400.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
Method Percentage
Written exam 30
Written assignment including essay 5
Set exercise 10
Class test administered by School 55

Other information on summative assessment:
Formative assessment and associated feedback forms a large proportion of the module, with students taking part in a variety learning opportunities (PBL classes, tutorials, workshops, practical classes). These activities include formative assessments and associated feedback.
Part 3 assessment is fully integrated across the year and includes two pieces of assessed coursework from this module; individual and team-based learning assessments linked to diabetes content, and a health promotion assessment that, combined, form 20% of the module mark.
In addition to summatively-assessed course work, students will take two in-course examinations, each worth 25% of the final module mark; one at the beginning of Spring term and the other in Summer term. Each in-course examination will assess taught content covered in the preceding term (i.e. the January in-course exam will cover the material taught in the Autumn term, whilst the April in-course exam will cover material taught in the Spring term. These written examinations will examine content using multiple choice questions and each will be 90 minutes in duration.

The final examination will be a written synoptic examination, worth 30% of the final module mark. This synoptic examination will require students to draw upon and apply knowledge they have gained in Part 1, 2 and 3 taught modules.

Formative assessment methods:

Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convenor will apply the following penalties for work submitted late, in accordance with the University policy.

  • where the piece of work is submitted up to one calendar week after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for the piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
  • where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

  • The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at:
    You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

    Length of examination:
    The three-hour synoptic exam covers material from PM3B and PM3C and, where relevant, includes concepts from PM3A and previously taught modules.

    Requirements for a pass:
    The student shall normally be required to achieve an overall weighted average of at least 40% for the module.

    Reassessment arrangements:
    Re-examination by written examination in August.

    Additional Costs (specified where applicable):
    1) Required text books: The University library has a large number of text books and specialised reading material. There are also an excellent number of e-books available to the students. There might be core text books, which the students wish to purchase at varying costs.
    2) Specialist equipment or materials: None.
    3) Specialist clothing, footwear or headgear: None but students must be appropriately dressed for laboratory-based practical sessions.
    4) Printing and binding: There are no specific printing costs as work is submitted electronically through Blackboard. Should students may wish to print teaching materials and currently library costs for printing are 5p a sheet (black &white).
    5) Computers and devices with a particular specification: None.
    6) Travel, accommodation and subsistence: None.

    Last updated: 21 December 2016

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