## MT3SW-Space Weather

Module Provider: Meteorology
Number of credits: 10 [5 ECTS credits]
Level:6
Terms in which taught: Spring term module
Pre-requisites: MT24B Atmospheric Physics
Non-modular pre-requisites: Experience of using vector mathematics an advantage but not essential
Co-requisites:
Modules excluded:
Module version for: 2017/8

Module Convenor: Prof Mike Lockwood

Summary module description:
Understanding of the physics that leads to space weather hazards. Description of those hazards and the of the ways that are used to protect ourselves from the risks.

Aims:
To develop an understanding of the near-Earth space environment and its variability and the hazards that it poses to astronauts, aviation, the satellite and power distribution industries and many others.

Assessable learning outcomes:

By the end of this module the student should be able to:

• Understand the basis of key theorems used to interpret and predict the behaviour of near-Earth space;

• Understand the origins of space weather disturbances;

• Have knowledge of space weather effects on modern systems and humans;

• Critically assess the effectiveness of methods and procedures to mitigate the risks.

• Learn and practice vector manipulation in the use of Maxwell’s equations;

• Have an understanding of plasmas: the fourth, and most ubiquitous state of matter in the cosmos;

• Gain knowledge of decadal-scale and centennial-scale solar change;

• Be introduced to the concept of the heliosphere and magnetosphere.

Outline content:

• Full lecture notes;

• A sheet listing key concepts;

• A sheet giving all key equations;

• One problem sheet with model answers;

• Problem sheets for assessment;

• Model answers to problem sheets (made available after marking in time for exam revision);

• Animations and images of space weather phenomena.

Subjects Covered:

• The Lorentz equation;

• The meaning of electric and magnetic fields;

• Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism;

• The induction equation;

• The convective limit – the frozen-in flux theorem;

• Magnetic curvature force and magnetic pressure;

• The diffusive limit – magnetic reconnection;

• The solar corona and the solar wind;

• Parker spiral theory of the heliospheric magnetic field;

• Coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles;

• Galactic cosmic rays;

• The magnetospheric cavity;

• Magnetospheric convection and substorms;

• Particle radiation effects on electronics;

• Particle radiation effects on living organisms;

• Induced currents and power grid disruption;

• Pipeline corosion.

Brief description of teaching and learning methods:

Lectures, 1 unassessed problem sheet discussed in a problem class, 4 assessed problem sheets which will be discussed and reviewed in a problem class each after marking and in time for exam revision.

Contact hours:
 Autumn Spring Summer Lectures 15 Practicals classes and workshops 5 Guided independent study 80 Total hours by term 100.00 Total hours for module 100.00

Summative Assessment Methods:
 Method Percentage Written exam 60 Report 40

Other information on summative assessment:

Formative assessment methods:

An un-assessed problem sheet will be completed by the students and the answers discussed during lectures. Model answers will be provided for this problem sheets. This will be used as practice for the four assessed problem sheets.

Penalties for late submission:
The Module Convenor will apply the following penalties for work submitted late, in accordance with the University policy.

• where the piece of work is submitted up to one calendar week after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): 10% of the total marks available for the piece of work will be deducted from the mark for each working day (or part thereof) following the deadline up to a total of five working days;
• where the piece of work is submitted more than five working days after the original deadline (or any formally agreed extension to the deadline): a mark of zero will be recorded.

• The University policy statement on penalties for late submission can be found at: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/qualitysupport/penaltiesforlatesubmission.pdf
You are strongly advised to ensure that coursework is submitted by the relevant deadline. You should note that it is advisable to submit work in an unfinished state rather than to fail to submit any work.

Length of examination:

2 hour paper.

Requirements for a pass:
40% overall.

Reassessment arrangements:
August / September examination only.