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Professor Mike Garman – University of Reading

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Professor Mike Garman





Areas of Interest

Psycholinguistic processes leave their traces in production data, which serves as a source of evidence for their nature and scope. My particular interests are in morpho-syntactic and lexical processing, in children and adults, and in normal and impaired speakers.

1 Grammatical aspects of aphasic speech.

There is a need to define the characteristics of normal connected speech abilities, in terms of the units of grammatical organisation and the relations between these units, and to use this information to characterise the speech of aphasics. Research was based on data collected from a project supported by the University of Reading Research Endowment Fund, 1990-1993, to investigate the lexico-grammatical properties of connected speech in a group of heterogeneous aphasics. Research joint co-ordinator: Dr. Susan Edwards; research associate: Raymond Knott.

2 Lexical profiling of child and adult connected speech.

Research was based on data collected from the MRC Project awarded to Prof Paul Fletcher and myself in the 1980s, and on subsequent data, from the aphasia project (see 1 above), and from other clinical sources. The purpose is to develop a lexical profile for use in the assessment of normal and impaired speech samples.

3 Revision and restandardisation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales

Working as part of a group (coordinated by Dr. Susan Edwards; Prof. Paul Fletcher, Mr. Arthur Hughes, Dr. Carolyn Letts, Dr. Indra Sinka) under contract from NFER-Nelson. The work involved construction of new items, particularly the redesign of the expressive language scale, and trialing of items, piloting the standardisation exercise, running the main standardisation, analysis of results and compilation of the new manual.

4. Bilingual language

Bilingualism provides an essential testing ground for psycholinguistic theories. In language acquisition, cross-linguistic research is frequently compromised by confounds between language and cognitive/cultural differences, while bilingual acquisition provides a control for these and allows for more direct testing of hypotheses regarding the knowledge base that children start from. In adult language processing, code-switching provides insights into the nature of planning domains, and whether both languages are continuously active in the frame-building phase as well as the lexicalisation phase of utterance production.

Child language acquisition: Principal researcher, 1997-98, ESRC Project R000 22 2072, Functional Categories in Bilngual Child Language: Evidence from English, German and Latvian; research associates Dr. C. Schelletter, Dr. I. Sinka.

Code-switching: with Dr. R. Karousou-Fokas, as part of her PhD work, funded by an ESRC Studentship, 1996-7.

Research groups / Centres

British Association for Applied Linguistics

Linguistic Association of Great Britain

Philological Society

International Association for the Study of Child Language

International Association of Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

British Aphasiological Society


Selected Publications

Crystal, D., Fletcher, P. & Garman, M. The grammatical assessment of language disabilities.

London: Arnold 1976/1981/ Whurr 1989, 231pp.

Fletcher, P. & Garman, M. (eds) Language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1979, 507pp.

Fletcher, P. & Garman, M. (eds) Language acquisition, revised edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1986, 613pp.

Fletcher, P. & Garman, M. LARSPing by numbers: reply to French. British Journal of Disorders of Communication 23: 1988a, 309-321.

Fletcher, P. Garman, M. Normal language development and language impairment: syntax and beyond. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 2: 1988b, 97-113.

Edwards, S. & Garman, M. Case study of an adult. In P. Grunwell and A. James (eds), The functional evaluation of language disorders. London: Croom Helm, 1989, pp. 163-81.

Garman, M. Psycholinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, 512pp.

Garman, M. Language Pathology and Neurolinguistics. In Malmkjaer, K. (ed.) The Linguistics Encyclopaedia. London: Routledge, 1991, 261-266.

Garman, M. and Edwards, S. Aphasia. In Malmkjaer, K. (ed.) The Linguistics Encyclopaedia. London: Routledge, 1991, 16-20.

Edwards, S., Garman, M. and Knott, R. The Grammatical Characterization of Aphasic Language. Aphasiology, 7, 1993, 217-220.

Garman, M. Psycholinguistics - Overview. In Asher, R.E. and Simpson, J.M.Y. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994

Garman, M. Language Acquisition in the Blind Child. In Asher, R.E. and Simpson, J.M.Y. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994

Garman, M. Wilhelm Wundt. In Asher, R.E. and Simpson, J.M.Y. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994

Garman, M. Aphasia and communicative speech therapy: the potential of grammatical analyses. Aphasiology 8, 1994, 491-496.

Garman, M. and Edwards, S. Syntactic assessment of expessive language. In Grundy, K. (ed.), Linguistics in clinical practice, 2nd edition. London: Whurr, 1995, 134-166.

Fletcher, P. and Garman, M. Transcription, segmentation and analysis: corpora from the language-impaired. In Leech, G., Myers, G. and Thomas, J. (eds), Spoken English on computer: transcription, mark-up and application. Harlow: Longman, 1995, 116-127.

Garman, M. Lexical profiling of spontaneous speech in children and adults. In T. Powell (ed.) Pathologies of speech and language: Contributions of clinical phonetics and linguistics. New Orleans: LSU Medical Centre.

Edwards, S., Garman, M. & Knott, R. 1995. Grammatical analysis of aphasic speech: the potential of unmarked sources of evidence. Brain & Language 51: 103-106.

with Edwards, S, Fletcher, P., Hughes, A., Letts, C. & Sinka, I. The Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. Windsor: NFER-Nelson, 1997

with S. Edwards, A. Hughes, C. Letts & I. Sinka. 1999. Assessing the comprehension and production of language in young children: an account of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 34.

with S. Edwards, A. Hughes, C. Letts & I. Sinka. 1999.Moving on from pigs and LARSP: reply to comments. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 34.

Schelletter, C, Sinka, I. & Garman, M. 1999. Latvian/English and German/English bilingual acquisition: new light on Universal Grammar. In Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Bilingualism, University of Vigo, 21st-25th October 1997.

Garman, M., Schelletter, C. & Sinka, I. 1999. Three hypotheses on early grammatical development. In Perkins, M. & Howard, S. (eds), New directions in language development and disorders. New York: Kluwer/Plenum, 73-84.

Garman, M. 1999. The blind child. In Spolsky, B. (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of educational linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Garman, M. 1999. Psycholinguistics overview. In Fabbro, F. (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of language pathology. Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Karousou-Fokas, R. & Garman, M. 2000. A psycholinguistic interpretation of code-switching: evidence from fluent Greek-English bilingual adults. International Journal of Bilingualism


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