Professor William Holderbaum
- +44 (0) 118 378 6086
Systems Engineering, Room 137
Areas of Interest
- EE710 (Topics in Engineering): Architecture and Algorithm, Autumn term.
- CY561: Control lab, Spring Term.
- EE0C2 Foundation Year: Electronic, Spring Term.
- Foundation Year: Electronic lab, Autumn and Spring Term.
- CY1A2 Cybernetics and its application, Spring Term.
- EG1C2: Math tutorial, Autumn and Spring Term, Differentiation, Integration, Complex number, Matrix, Numerical Method, Autumn and Spring Term.
- EE2B2 Electromagnetism and its application, Autumn and Spring Term, Vector algebra, vector analysis, Electrostatic fields, Magnetic fields. Magnetic materials and permanent magnets. Faraday's Law, Transmission Lines.
- SE1CB9: Engineering Mathematics, Algebra, Functions, Vectors and Complex number
- SE1CEM11: Engineering Mathematics and Tutorial. Autumn, Spring and summer Term; Algebra and Complex number, Differentiation and Integration and tutorials in Algebra, Differentiation, Integration, Complex number, Vectors Algebra, Matrix Algebra, Differential Equation,.
Within the research group Prof Holderbaum's research the theory of control systems and modelling with applications mainly focused on the following topics: Boolean input systems (i.e. power converter), Geometric Control (nonholonomic control systems), Rehabilitation Engineering (Robust Control Design for unsupported Paraplegic Standing), Energy reduction (Smart Grid, Multiple Agent Systems, Fuel Cells, Power Generation and Wireless Power Transfer), Autonomous Vehicle (Motion planning, visualisation control):
- Boolean input systems are sub-class of hybrid systems (Boolean + continuous) of a single model obtain from the Bond Graph modelling technique. I have developed theoretical control laws and studied the Lyapunov stability of systems with application to electrical motors in simulation. I have also extended hybrid control laws using a neural network approach. At the present time I am studying a new approach from the stability point of view.
- The goal of rehabilitation engineering allows people to restore movement with Functional Electrical Simulation. The human body is a complex system that is very difficult to control; I developed new strategies to integrate and/or to take into account those particular complexities. The direction of research involves patients with severe Spinal Cord Injury who have difficulties in transferring between poses (e.g. moving from a bed to a chair), and likewise for carers of patients with Spinal Cord Injuries who must avoid possible back pain due to incorrect lifting. This work investigates the dynamics involved in transferring, along with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) methods to activate muscle groups at the appropriate phase of a sit-to-stand transfer. The overall control of the transfer would be shared between the carer and the individual with the Spinal Cord Injury.
- This research involves studying nonholonomic control systems whose configuration space can be described by a matrix Lie group. This framework provides a natural and mathematically rich setting for studying nonholonomic systems. In particular analysis tools from a diverse range of mathematical subjects such as group theory and differential geometry are used extensively. A transformation has been considered in the Hamiltonian setting which is the natural setting for conserved systems (systems with symmetry). The Hamiltonian equations can then be solved explicitly in many cases and as such global solutions of high dimensional systems can be obtained. In addition the research extends much of the current theory to consider non-Euclidean spaces. This current work has been applied in the control of an Autonomous Under-water Vehicle
- Energy minimisation is an important research topics and even more so today in order to reduce the overall CO2 emission. This research uses the mathematical engineering skills in order to minimise the energy consumption in home by adding storage combining with multiple agent systems. Another topic relates to the use of PhotoVoltaic (PV) cells and ThermoElectric (TE) to scavenge energy freely available around us. Control engineering renders this possible by managing the power betweens loads (demand) and generator (PV-TE). Other areas of energy related research are wireless power transfer (which consists of modelling the efficiency of power transfer from Maxwell's Equations) and fuels cells technology (estimation of the magnetic fields from the cells using classification algorithms)
- The research work on Unmanned Air Vehicle(UAV) focuses on the review and comparison of different existing algorithms from the literatures for path planning. To perform such a comparison a benchmark environment is designed associated with performance metrics. Furthermore different control methods are being researched focusing on navigation and guidance using camera and sensors. Lastly an interesting research is emerging of UAV control. Indeed the development of computational methods for the design of optimal low thrust spacecraft trajectories subject to uncertainties (dynamics of the system, lack of accurate knowledge on the terminal constraints associated with a mission). Two alternative approaches based on stochastic sampling are being explored: The first approach will employ the unscented transformation to approximate the distribution of the control and state trajectories. The second approach is a modified particle control approach, whereby the probability distributions of the states and controls are iteratively approximated using sampling.
Within the University
- Co-ordinator of Part II Exams: involves collating exams, put it under the examination form, Contacting external Reviewers and make the correction, dispatch exams papers to lecturers, gathering all results in electronic format.
- Examining: setting and marking exams tests/or assignments associated with the Units taught.
- Supervising final year projects
- Supervising PhD Students.
- Staff Training and Development: Attended Workshops; Teaching Project submitted and Pass, Self Development training in Control Theory.
Outside the University
- Member of the IEEE.
- Reviewer: Journal: Mathematical Reviews AMS (American Mathematical Society), IEEE/SMC Systems Man and Cybernetics journal, IEEE control systems and technology IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, IEEE Transaction on Neural Network, European Journal Control, International Journal of Control, Journal Of systems and Control Engineering (Imech), Automatica,
- Involvement in International Conferences, organisation and review process.
- Invited Lectured/Seminars (Lille, Wisconsin, Berlin, Reading, Leicester, Glasgow)
- Industrial Collaborations (Stontronics, Scottish Southern Energy, Safe Training Systems Ltd, Rockwell Collins, KEC interconnect, GDS instrument, Salisbury Hospital, Stanmore Hospital)
- Academic Collaborations (Rhodes University, University of Toronto, Max Plank Institute, University of Glasgow, University of Lille, University of Leeds, University of Loughborough, University of Strathclyde, University of Brunel etc... )
- Associate lecturer with the Open University (MSc Mathematics: Fractal Geometry)
Research Groups / Centres
Research groups / Centres
- Alasali, F., Luque, A., Mayer, R. and Holderbaum, W. (2019) A comparative study of energy storage systems and active front ends for networks of two electrified RTG cranes. Energies, 12 (9). 1771. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091771
- Alasali, F., Haben, S. and Holderbaum, W. (2019) Stochastic optimal energy management system for RTG cranes network using genetic algorithm and ensemble forecasts. Journal of Energy Storage, 24. ISSN 2352-152X doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2019.100759
- Alasali, F., Haben, S. and Holderbaum, W. (2019) Energy management systems for a network of electrified cranes with energy storage. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 106. pp. 210-222. ISSN 01420615 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.10.001
- Alasali, F., Haben, S., Becerra, V. and Holderbaum, W. (2018) Day-ahead industrial load forecasting for electric RTG cranes. Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, 6 (2). pp. 223-234. ISSN 2196-5625 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40565-018-0394-4
- Alasali, F., Haben, S., Becerra, V. and Holderbaum, W. (2017) Optimal energy management and MPC strategies for electrified RTG cranes with energy storage systems. Energies, 10 (10). 1598. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101598
- Ritzmann, D., Rens, J., Wright, P. S., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2017) A novel approach to noninvasive measurement of overhead line impedance parameters. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 66 (6). pp. 1155-1163. ISSN 0018-9456 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2017.2665958
- Papaioannou, V., Pietrosanti, S., Holderbaum, W., Becerra, V. M. and Mayer, R. (2017) Analysis of energy usage for RTG cranes. Energy, 125. pp. 337-344. ISSN 0360-5442 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.02.122
- King, R. C., Villeneuve, E., White, R. J., Sherratt, R. S., Holderbaum, W. and Harwin, W. S. (2017) Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring. Medical Engineering & Physics, 42. pp. 1-12. ISSN 1350-4533 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.12.011
- Yunusov, T., Zangs, M. J. and Holderbaum, W., eds. (2017) Control of energy storage. Energies, 10 (7). MDPI Publishing, p. 1010. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en10071010
- Villeneuve, E., Harwin, W., Holderbaum, W., Janko, B. and Sherratt, R. S. (2017) Reconstruction of angular kinematics from wrist-worn inertial sensor data for smart home healthcare. IEEE Access, 5. pp. 2351-2363. ISSN 2169-3536 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2640559
- Moorey, C. L. and Holderbaum, W. (2017) A study on the wireless power transfer efficiency of electrically small, perfectly conducting electric and magnetic dipoles. Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, 77. pp. 111-121. ISSN 1937-8718 doi: https://doi.org/10.2528/PIERC17062304
- Ritzmann, D., Wright, P. S., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2016) A method for accurate transmission line impedance parameter estimation. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 65 (10). pp. 2204-2213. ISSN 0018-9456 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2016.2556920
- Zangs, M. J., Adams, P. B. E., Yunusov, T., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. A. (2016) Distributed energy storage control for dynamic load impact mitigation. Energies, 9 (8). 647. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080647
- Villeneuve, E., Harwin, W., Holderbaum, W., Sherratt, R. S. and White, R. (2016) Signal quality and compactness of a dual-accelerometer system for gyro-free human motion analysis. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16 (16). pp. 6261-6269. ISSN 1530-437X doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2582262
- Pietrosanti, S., Holderbaum, W. and Becerra, V. M. (2016) Modeling power flow in a hoist motor of a rubber-tired gantry crane. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 52 (3). pp. 2088-2094. ISSN 1939-9367 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2016.2529560
- Pietrosanti, S., Holderbaum, W. and Becerra, V. (2016) Optimal power management strategy for energy storage with stochastic loads. Energies, 9 (3). 175. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030175
- Yunusov, T., Frame, D., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2016) The impact of location and type on the performance of Low-Voltage network connected Battery Energy Storage Systems. Applied Energy, 165. pp. 202-213. ISSN 03062619 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.12.045
- Zangs, M. J., Yunusov, T., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2016) On-line adjustment of battery schedules for supporting LV distribution network operation. In: Energy and Sustainability Conference (IESC), 2016 International, 30 Jun -1 Jul 2016, Koln, Germany.
- Moorey, C., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2015) Investigation of high-efficiency Wireless Power Transfer criteria of resonantly-coupled loops and dipoles through analysis of the figure of merit. Energies, 8 (10). pp. 11342-11362. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011342
- Alkowatly, M. T., Becerra, V. and Holderbaum, W. (2015) Bioinspired autonomous visual vertical control of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 38 (2). pp. 249-262. ISSN 1533-3884 doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/1.G000634
- Alkowatly, M. T., Becerra, V. M. and Holderbaum, W. (2015) Bio-inspired autonomous visual vertical control of a quadrotor UAV. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 38 (2). pp. 249-262. ISSN 0731-5090 doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/1.G000634
- Alkowatly, M. T., Becerra, V. M. and Holderbaum, W. (2015) Body-centric modelling, identification, and acceleration tracking control of a quadrotor UAV. International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, 24 (1). pp. 29-41. ISSN 1746-6172 doi: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMIC.2015.071697
- Rowe, M., Yunusov, T., Haben, S., Singleton, C., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2014) A peak reduction scheduling algorithm for storage devices on the low voltage network. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5 (4). pp. 2115-2124. ISSN 1949-3053 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2014.2323115
- Rowe, M., Yunusov, T., Haben, S., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2014) The real-time optimisation of DNO owned storage devices on the LV network for peak reduction. Energies, 7 (6). pp. 3537-3560. ISSN 1996-1073 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en7063537
- Markakis, A., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2014) Bond graph models of DC-DC converters operating in both CCM and DCM. International Journal of Power Electronics, 6 (1). pp. 18-41. ISSN 1756-6398 doi: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPELEC.2014.060706
- Ausoni, J. T., Mitchell, R. and Holderbaum, W. (2014) Towards optimizing the selection of neurons in affordable neural networks. In: The 2014 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, July 21-24, 2014,, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.
- Rowe, M., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2013) Control methodologies: Peak reduction algorithms for DNO owned storage devices on the Low Voltage network. In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE), 2013 4th IEEE/PES, 6-9 Oct, Denmark, pp. 1-5. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2013.6695291
- Alkowatly, M. T., Becerra, V. M. and Holderbaum, W. (2013) Estimation of visual motion parameters used for bio-inspired navigation. Journal of Image and Graphics, 1 (3). pp. 120-124. ISSN 2301-3699 doi: https://doi.org/10.12720/joig.1.3.120-124
- Haben, S., Rowe, M., Vukadinovic Greetham, D., Grindrod, P., Holderbaum, W., Potter, B. and Singleton, C. (2013) Mathematical solutions for electricity networks in a low carbon future. In: Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013), 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on, 10-13 June 2013, Stockholm, 0857-0857. doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2013.0972
- Holderbaum, W. and Biggs, J. (2013) Optimal steady motions for oriented vehicles. Theoretical Mathematics & Applications, 3 (1). pp. 85-110. ISSN 1792-9709
- Lowery, N. L.H., Vahdati, M. M., Potthast, R. W.E. and Holderbaum, W. (2013) Classification and fault detection methods for fuel cell monitoring and quality control. Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, 10 (2). 021002. ISSN 1550-624X doi: https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4023565
- Tucker, C. A., Warwick, K. and Holderbaum, W. (2013) A contribution to the wireless transmission of power. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 47 (5). pp. 235-242. ISSN 0142-0615 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2012.10.066
- Bowden , C., Holderbaum, W. and Becerra, V. M. (2012) Strong structural controllability and the multilink inverted pendulum. IEEE transactions on automatic control, 57 (11). pp. 2891-2896. ISSN 0018-9286 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.2012.2191180
- Tucker, C.A., Warwick, K. and Holderbaum, W. (2012) Efficient wireless power delivery for biomedical implants. IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 2 (3). pp. 176-182. ISSN 2043-6386 doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-wss.2011.0168
- Tucker, C.A., Warwick, K. and Holderbaum, W. (2012) Efficient wireless power delivery for biomedical implants. IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 2 (3). p. 176. ISSN 2043-6386 doi: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-wss.2011.0168
- Lowery, N., Potthast, R., Vahdati, M. and Holderbaum, W. (2012) On discrimination algorithms for ill-posed problems with an application to magnetic tomography. Inverse Problems , 28 (6). 065010. ISSN 1361-6420 doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/0266-5611/28/6/065010
- Linton, C., Holderbaum, W. and Biggs, J. (2012) Casimirs and Lax operators from the structure of Lie algebras. European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 5 (4). pp. 567-583. ISSN 1307-5543
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B. J. (2012) Electrical stimulation for trunk control in paraplegia:A feasibility study. Control Engineering Practice, 20 (12). pp. 1247-1258. ISSN 0967-0661 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2012.06.007
- Linton, C., Holderbaum, W. and Biggs, J. (2012) Rigid body trajectories in different 6D spaces. ISRN Mathematical Physics, 2012. Article ID: 467520. ISSN 2090-4681 doi: https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/467520
- Bowden, C., Holderbaum, W. and Becerra, V. (2012) Strong structural controllability and the multi-link inverted pendulum. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 57 (11). pp. 2891-2896. ISSN 0018-9286 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.2012.2191180
- Yunusov, T., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2011) Cost function for sub-agent elements in multi-agent energy management system. In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe) 2011, 5-7 Dec 2011, Manchester, UK, pp. 1-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGTEurope.2011.6162783
- Yunusov, T., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2011) Sub-agent elements for control methods in multi-agent energy management system. In: 2011 IEEE 33rd International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), 9-13th October 2011, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 1-7.
- Markakis, A., Holderbaum, W. and Potter, B. (2011) A comparison between bond graphs switching modelling techniques implemented on a boost dc-dc converter. In: 2011 IEEE 33rd International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), 9-13th October 2011, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 1-7.
- Milthorp, T., Becerra, V., Holderbaum, W. and Hutt, B. (2011) Adaptive recursive control of a soil testing load frame. In: 2011 IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM), 17-19 Sept. 2011 , Qingdao, pp. 102-107. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/RAMECH.2011.6070464
- Biggs, J. D. and Holderbaum, W. (2010) Integrable quadratic Hamiltonians on the Euclidean group of motions. Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems, 16 (3). pp. 301-317. ISSN 1573-8698 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10883-010-9094-8
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B. (2010) Activation of lower back muscles via FES for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia: a case study. Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, 34 (3). pp. 224-231. ISSN 1464-522X doi: https://doi.org/10.3109/03091900903580504
- Biggs, J. and Holderbaum, W. (2009) Optimal kinematic control of an autonomous underwater vehicle. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 54 (7). pp. 1623-1626. ISSN 0018-9286 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tac.2009.2017966
- Holderbaum, W. and Biggs, J. (2009) Oriented vehicles travelling in spherical space. In: IASTED Control and Applications 2009, Cambridge, UK.
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B. (2008) Development and experimental identification of a biomechanical model of the trunk for functional electrical stimulation control in paraplegia. Neuromodulation, 11 (4). pp. 315-324. ISSN 1094-7159
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B.J. (2008) Development of closed loop FES controllers for trunk stabilization in paraplegia. In: 13th Annual Conference of the IFESS, Freiburg, Germany .
- Holderbaum, W. and Biggs, J. (2008) Integrable Hamiltonian systems defined on the Lie groups SO(3) and SU(2): an application to the attitude control of a spacecraft. In: 5th Wismar Symposium on Automatic Control (AUTSYM 2008), Wismar, Germany.
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B.J. (2008) Model based development of a FES controller for trunk stabilization in paraplegia. In: 5th Wismar Symposium on Automatic Control (AUTSYM 2008), Wismar, Germany.
- Biggs, J. and Holderbaum, W. (2008) Planning rigid body motions using elastic curves. Mathematics of Control Signals and Systems, 20 (4). pp. 351-367. ISSN 0932-4194 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00498-008-0033-0
- Vanoncini, M., Holderbaum, W. and Andrews, B.J. (2008) A simple biomechanical model of the trunk for FES assisted balance control in paraplegia. In: 13th Annual Conference of the IFESS, Freiburg, Germany.
- Holderbaum, W. (2007) Application of neural network to hybrid systems with binary inputs. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 18 (4). pp. 1254-1261. ISSN 1045-9227 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tnn.2007.899181
- Biggs, J. and Holderbaum, W. (2007) Integrating Hamiltonian systems defined on the Lie groups SO(4) and SO(1,3). In: 45th European Control Conference (ECC 2007) , Kos, Greece.
- Biggs, J., Holderbaum, W. and Jurdjevic, V. (2007) Singularities of optimal control problems on some 6-D lie groups. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 52 (6). pp. 1027-1038. ISSN 0018-9286 doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/tac.2007.899010
- Biggs, J. and Holderbaum, W. (2006) Integrating control systems defined on the frame bundles of the space forms. In: Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Vols 1-14. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. IEEE, New York, pp. 3849-3854. ISBN 0191-2216 9781424401703
- Becerra, V.M., Biggs, J.D., Nasuto, S.J., Ruiz, V.F., Holderbaum, W. and Izzo, D. (2006) Using Newton's method to search for quasi-periodic relative satellite motion based on nonlinear Hamilton models. In: 7th Cranfield Conference on Dynamics and Control of Systems and Structures in Space, Greenwich, United Kingdom, 193 - 202.
- Knight, J., Shirsavar, S.A. and Holderbaum, W. (2006) An improved reliability Cuk based solar inverter with sliding mode control. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 21 (4). 1107 - 1115 . doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2006.876786
- Becerra, V.M., Garces, F., Nasuto, S.J. and Holderbaum, W. (2005) An Efficient Parameterization of Dynamic Neural Networks for Nonlinear System Identification. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 16 (4). 983 - 988. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNN.2005.849844
- Holderbaum, W. and Schinkel, M. (2005) Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems. In: Wismar 2005 Symposium on automatic control, Germany.
- Biggs, J. and Holderbaum, W. (2005) The geometry of optimal control solutions on some six dimensional lie groups. In: 2005 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control & European Control Conference, Vols 1-8. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control - Proceedings. Ieee, New York, pp. 1427-1432. ISBN 0191-2216 0780395670
- Biggs, J. D., Becerra, V., Nasuto, S., Ruiz, V. and Holderbaum, W., (2005) A search for invariant relative satellite motion. Technical Report. ESA/ESTEC
- Knight, J. , Shirsavar, S. and Holderbaum, W. (2004) Capacitive idling techniques improve inverter performance. In: IEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Machine Drives, Proceedings of PEMD04, 31 March - 02 April 2004, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 638-643.
- Vanoncini, M., Thrasher, T. A., Andrews, B.J. and Holderbaum, W. (2004) Increasing trunk stiffness via FES in paraplegic subjects. In: Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the IFESS and 2nd Conference of FESnet, Bournemouth.
- Holderbaum, W., Hunt, K. and Gollee, H. (2004) Robust Discrete Control for Paraplegic Standing: Experimental Results. European Journal of Control, 10 (3). pp. 277-286.
- Schauer, T., Holderbaum, W. and Hunt, K. (2003) Sliding-mode control of knee-joint angle: experimental results. In: International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society 2002 Conference, 25-29 June 2003, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 316-318.
- Holderbaum, W. and Schauer, T. (2003) Application of Sliding-Mode Control to Knee-Joint Angle: Analysis, Computational Engineering in System Application. In: IEEE SMC Conference, Lille, France.
- Holderbaum, W. (2003) Neural Network Application to Linear Systems with Binary Inputs. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Hawaii.
- Holderbaum, W. (2002) Control strategy for Boolean input systems. In: IEEE American Control Conference 2002, 14-16 Jun 2002, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 1260-1265.
- Holderbaum, W., Hunt, K. J. and Gollee, H. (2002) H∞ robust control design for unsupported paraplegic standing: experimental evaluation. Control Engineering Practice, 10 (11). pp. 1211-1222. ISSN 0967-0661 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0661(02)00082-5
- Holderbaum, W. and Hunt, K. (2001) Application of H-infinity robust control to paraplegic standing. In: 15th Triennial World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), 21-26 Jul 2002, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 292-298.