Project documents


This page lists project publications and papers, both those by project members and other presenters at workshops. Student papers associated with the project are also published here. Additionally, the page provides a variety of useful materials related to the 123 Agreement, including references for articles, books, papers and primary documents, as well as direct links to web resources.

123 Agreement


Project publications and papers

Articles in the Indian Journal of International Law (2011, 51(2), special issue for the project on "India, the 123 Agreement, and Nuclear Energy: Issues of International Law")

Khan, R., "Prologue", 1

Barnidge, Jr., R.P., and Manohar, N., "Introduction", 1

Green, J.A., "India and a Customary Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban: Persistent Objection, Peremptory Norms and the 123 Agreement", 3

Hennequet, E., "The Relationship Between the 123 Agreement and International Environmental Law", 46

Nirmal, B.C., "123 Agreement and International Environmental Law", 57

Pretorius, J., "The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Export Norm and the 123 Agreement", 81

Gupta, M.K., "India's 2010 Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act: An Analysis of Domestic and International Legal Issues", 100

Eboli, V., "Some Observations on Nuclear Damage, International Environmental Law, and the 123 Agreement", 110

Nakanishi, H., "Rethinking the 123 Agreement: A Trade-Off Between India's Right to a Nuclear Test and Civilian Nuclear Cooperation", 124

Ranganathan, S., "Visions of International Law: Lessons from the 123 Agreement", 146


Other academic project publications and papers

Balaji, V., "The Impact of the Indo-US 123 Agreement - A Holistic Analysis" (2011)

Barnidge, Jr., R.P., "The 2008 United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement and the Work of the International Law Commission on International Liability for Injurious Consequences Arising out of Acts Not Prohibited by International Law" (2011) 2(1) Asian Journal of International Law 1

Green, J.A., "India's Status as a Nuclear Weapons Power Under Customary International Law" (2012) 24 National Law School of India Review 125

Vanangamudi, P. "The Indo-US Nuclear Deal and National Development - A Critical Study" (2011)


Student project papers

Alhajri, N., "The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime with Reference to the US-India 123 Agreement" (2011-2012)

Ali, S., "The Implications of the 123 Agreement for Pakistan as a Nuclear State" (2009-2010)

Altay, M., "The Implications of the 123 Agreement for Other States" (2011-2012)

Burgess, D., "The Indo-US Civilian Nuclear Agreement: The Tangle of Political Pressures, Security Concerns and Economic Interests Loosely bound by Law" (2009-2010)

Dharsey, S., "Will the Indo-US 123 Agreement Lead to the Demise of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty?" (2011-2012)

Freedman, K., "Is the 123 Agreement Legally Problematic for the United States in Light of its Obligations as a State Party to the NPT?" (2010-2011)

Gandhok, M., "The Indian Parliamentary Path of the US-India 123 Agreement" (2011-2012)

Giles, D., "To what extent has the 123 Agreement bteween the USA and India Strengthened the Latter's 'Degree of Strategic Autonomy' and how has this Impacted on the Blance of Power in the Region" (2011-2012)

Hennequet, E., "The Relationship Between the 123 Agreement and International Environmental Law" (2009-2010)

Stanley, L., "After the 123 Agreement Between India and the United States, Pursuing Controls on India's Nuclear Weapons Programme, Could There Ever Be such an Agreement Between Israel and the United States?" (2011-12)


Documents related to the project

Academic books, articles and papers

Ahlström, C., "Arrows for India? - Technology Transfers of Ballistic Missile Defence and the Missile Technology Control Regime" (2004) 9 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 103

Akhtar, R., "Pakistan's Nuclear Assets: Safe and Secure" CBRN South Asia Brief, No. 13, June 2009

Akhtar, R., "The Nuclear Debate in Pakistan: Post Indo-US Deal" CBRN South Asia Brief, No.17, October 2009

Asada, M., "CTBT: Legal Questions Arising from Its Non-Entry-into-Force" (2002) 7 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 85

Bunn, G., "Nuclear Tests Violate International Norm" (1998) 28 Arms Control Today

Busch, N.E., and Joyner, D.H. (eds.), Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of International Nonproliferation Policy (University of Georgia Press, 2009)

Carranza, M.E., South Asian Security and International Nuclear Order: Creating a Robust Indo-Pakistani Nuclear Arms Control Regime (Ashgate, 2009)

Chari, P.R. (ed.), Indo-US Nuclear Deal: Seeking Synergy in Bilateralism (Routledge, 2009)

Chari, P.R., "Pokharan-I: Personal Reflections" (1999) 80 Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, Special Report

Choudhury, U., "The Indo-USA Nuclear Deal and Its Impact on India's Balistic Missile Programme" (2008) South Asia Strategic Stability Institute

Cirincione, J., "Nuclear Cave In" (2006) Pac Net, No. 8A, Pacific Forum, Center for Strategic and International Studies

Cossa, R.A., and Glosserman, B., "Regional Overview: Inaction for Inaction, With Unhelpful Reactions" (2008) 10 Comparative Connections: East Asian Bilateral Relations

Erkel, S., India's Nuclear Policy: With Special Reference to the India-US Nuclear Deal (Grin Verlag, 2008)

Frey, K., India's Nuclear Bomb and National Security (Routledge, 2009)

Garvey, J.I., "A New Architecture for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons" (2007) 12 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 339

Ghose, A., "Negotiating the CTBT: India's Security Concerns and Nuclear Disarmament" (1997) 51 Journal of International Affairs 239

Giles, D., "To What Extent Have the Obligations Under Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Been Fulfilled?" (2012), LLM dissertation submitted at the School of Law, University of Reading

Green, J.A., "Book Review: Daniel H. Joyner, Interpreting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011)" (2012) 106 American Journal of International Law 426

Gupta, A. (coordinator - various contributors), "Indo-US Nuclear Deal: A Debate" (2007) 32 Vikalpa 87

Gupta, M.K., "Indo-US Nuclear Deal: Major Legal Issues" (2007), MPhil dissertation submitted at the Centre for International Legal Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University

Guthrie, G., "Nuclear Testing Rocks the Sub-Continent: Can International Law Halt the Impending Nuclear Conflict Between India and Pakistan" (1999-2000) 23 Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 495

Heinzelman, K., "Towards Common Interests and Responsibilities: The U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Deal and the International Nonproliferation Regime" (2008) 33 Yale Journal of International Law 447

Horner, D., "NSG Revises Rules on Sensitive Exports" (2011) 41 Arms Control Today

Hulsroj, P., "Jus Cogens and Disarmament" (2006) 46 Indian Journal of International Law 1

Jha, A., "Indo-U.S. Treaty on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation, 2007: Should This Baby of Indo-U.S. Love Affairs Be Aborted?" (2008) 48 Indian Journal of International Law 435

Joyner, D.H., International Law and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Oxford University Press, 2009)

Joyner, D.H., Interpreting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Joyner, D.H., "The NSG Has Left the Building: A Lawyer's View", Arms Control Wonk, 11 July 2011 (introduction by Lewis, J., "Joyner on the NSG")

Joyner, D.H., "'Crowing' About Iran Sanctions Should Stop", Jurist, 24 May 2012

Kerr, P.K., "U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress" (2008) Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress, Order Code RL33016

Kimball, D.G., and McGoldrick, F., "U.S.-Indian Nuclear Agreement: A Bad Deal Gets Worse" (2007) Arms Control Association

Kimball, D.G., "Text, Analysis, and Response to NSG Statement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation with India" (2008) Arms Control Association

Kimball, D.G., "New Nuclear Suppliers Rules a Net Plus" (2011) 41 Arms Control Today

Kuppuswamy, C., "Is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Shaking at Its Foundations? Stock Taking after the 2005 NPT Review Conference" (2006) 11 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 141

Müller, J., "The Signing of the US-India Agreement Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy" (2009) 1 Göttingen Journal of International Law 179

Nagan, W.P., and Slemmens, E.K., "National Security Policy and Ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty" (2009-2010) 32 Houston Journal of International Law 1

Nayan, R., "Pakistan's Annual Deception" (2011) Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis Comment

Nayan, R. (ed.), The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and India (Routledge, 2011)

Nayan, R., "Non-Proliferation Lobby Analysts Seek to Corner India on CTBT" (2011) Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis Comment

Nazarbayev, N., Epicenter of Peace (Puritan Press, 2001)

Ntoubandi, F.Z., "Reflections on the USA-India Atomic Energy Cooperation" (2008) 13 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 273

Packer, A., "Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia" (2000) 38 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 631

Paulus, A.J., and Müller, J., "Survival Through Law: Is There a Law Against Nuclear Proliferation?" (2007) 18 Finnish Yearbook of International Law 83

Perkovich, G., "Global Implications of the U.S.-India Deal" (Winter 2010) Daedalus

Rai, A.K., India's Nuclear Policy after Pokhran II (Dorling Kindersley, 2009)

Rajagopalan, R.P., "Indo-US Nuclear Deal: Implications for India and the Global N-Regime" Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi, Special Report No. 62, December 2008

Rotblat, J., Steinberger, J. and Bhalchandra, U. (eds.), A Nuclear Weapon Free World: Desirable? Feasible? (Westview Press, 1993)

Singh, B.B., "The Hyde Act 2006 - India's Nuclear Dilemma" (2007) Atoms For Peace - An International Journal 307

Singh, B.B. (ed.), Special Issue on "Indo-US Civil Nuclear Cooperation" (2008) Atoms for Peace - An International Journal 1-119. This Issue contains articles devoted to the Indian view of the 123 Agreement written by nine scientists.

Singh, B.B., "Indo-US 123 Agreement - A Saga of Controversies and Compromises" (2008) International Journal of Nuclear Law 78

Singh, B.B., "Flaws in the Liability Bill", The New Indian Express, 31 March 2010

Singh, B.B., "A Scientifically Naive Bill", The New Indian Express, 2 April 2010

Singh, B.B., "India's NSG Question", The New Indian Express, 29 June 2011

Sultan, M., and Adil, M.B., "The Henry J. Hyde Act and the 123 Agreement: An Assessment" (2008) South Asian Strategic Stability Institute, Policy Brief 11

Tabassi, L., "The Nuclear Test Ban: Lex Lata or de Lege Ferenda?" (2009) 14 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 309

Talbot, S., Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy, and the Bomb (Brookings Institute Press, Revised Edition, 2006)

Tellis, A., "Atoms for War? US-Indian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation and India's Nuclear Arsenal" (2006) Carnegie Endowment Report

Thakur, V.K., "Did India Sell Itself Short?", 22 July 2005

Thakur, V.K., "Indian ICBM: A Flawed Deterrent!", 28 August 2005

Wable, K.M., "The US-India Strategic Nuclear Partnership: A Debilitating Blow to the Non-Proliferation Regime" (2007-2008) 33 Brooklyn Journal of International Law 719

Walker, W., "International Nuclear Relations After the Indian and Pakistani Test Explosions" (1998) 74 International Affairs 505


Newspaper articles and reports/media coverage

Mani, V.S., "India's Tests: The Legal Issues", The Hindu, 5 June 1998

Kimball, D.G, "Dangerous Deal with New Delhi", Baltimore Sun, 9 March 2006

ElBaradei, M., "Rethinking Nuclear Safeguards", Washington Post, 14 June 2006

"US-India Nuke Deal: 1…2…3…Go", The Times of India, 22 July 2007  

"123 Agreement a Victory for India: Scientists", The Times of India, 23 July 2007

Vyas, N., "123 Agreement an Assault on Nuclear Sovereignty: BJP", The Hindu, 5 August 2007

Kumar, A., "Does India Have the Right to Test a Nuclear Weapon?", Daily News and Analysis, 16 August 2007

Ramachandran, R., "123 Agreement and Internal Laws", The Hindu, 19 September 2007

Raghavan, B.S., "The Hyde Act - Misreading or Misleading?", The Hindu Business Line, 5 March 2008

Kole, W.J., "45 Nations Approve Landmark US-India Nuclear Deal: Decision Allows Transfer of Civil Atomic Technology", Jerusalem Post, 7 July 2008

"India and France in Nuclear Deal", BBC News, 3 September 2008

Sevastoupulo, D., "US-India Nuclear Deal Embroiled in Bail-Out Talks", Financial Times, 27-28 September 2008

"US and India Sign Nuclear Accord", BBC News, 10 October 2008

"Thorium-Fuelled Exports Coming from India", World Nuclear News, 17 September 2009

Dombey, D., and Morris, H., "UN Backs Obama on Nuclear Controls", Financial Times, 24 September 2009

"India Says No to NPT as Non-Nuclear Weapon State", iGovernment, 25 September 2009

"India Stays Firm, Rejects NPT, CTBT", The Economic Times of India, 26 September 2009

Kakodkar, A., "Reversing the Logic of the Nuclear Deal", The Hindu, 3 July 2011


Organisations, primary documents and useful web resources

The Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy

Arms Control Association

Arms Control Law

Carnegie Endowment's Nuclear Policy Program

Cooperation Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the French Republic on the Development of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, 2008

Department of State, United States of America

"Fact Sheet: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty" (1991) 2 United States Department of State Dispatch

"Implementation of the India-United States Joint Statement of 18 July 2005: India's Separation Plan" (2006) 46 Indian Journal of International Law 611

"India-US Joint Statement, 2 March 2006, New Delhi" (2006) 46 Indian Journal of International Law 606

Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi

Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy (University of Hamburg)

James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies

Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India

Nuclear Suppliers Group, Statement on Civil Nuclear Cooperation with India (2008)

"Report Pursuant to Section 104(c) of the Hyde Act Regarding Civil Nuclear Cooperation with India Submitted to the United States Congress", 10 September 2008

Testimony Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, "The US-India Civil Nuclear Deal: A Statement by Robert J. Einhorn (Senior Adviser)" (2006) Center for Strategic and International Studies

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1968 (NPT)

"United States Department of State's Responses to the 45 Questions for the Record on the U.S.-India 123 Agreement", House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 5 October 2007 (2008)

"United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation and United States Additional Protocol Implementation Act" (2006) 46 Indian Journal of International Law 618


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